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Title:
Neotropical primates a newsletter of the Neotropical Section of the IUCNSSC Primate Specialist Group
Abbreviated Title:
Neotrop. primates
Creator:
IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group -- Neotropical Section
Conservation International
Center for Applied Biodiversity Science
Place of Publication:
Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Brazil
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Conservation International
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regular
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English
Physical Description:
v. : ill. ; 27 cm.

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Primates -- Periodicals -- Latin America ( lcsh )
Primates -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
Wildlife conservation -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
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serial ( sobekcm )
review ( marcgt )
periodical ( marcgt )
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Brazil

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Also issued online.
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English, Portuguese, and Spanish.
Dates or Sequential Designation:
Vol. 1, no. 1 (Mar. 1993)-
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Issued jointly with Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, <Dec. 2004->
General Note:
Published in Washington, D.C., Dec. 1999-Apr. 2005 , Arlington, VA, Aug. 2005-
General Note:
Latest issue consulted: Vol. 13, no. 1 (Apr. 2005).

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University of Florida
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University of Florida
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Copyright Conservation International. Permission granted to University of Florida to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder.
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28561619 ( OCLC )
96648813 ( LCCN )
1413-4705 ( ISSN )

Full Text

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PRIMATES NEOTROPICAL ISSN 1413-4703 A Journal of the Neotropical Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group Volume 25 Number 1 December 2019 Editors Erwin Palacios Jessica Ward Lynch Bruna Bezerra Liliana Corts-Ortiz Jlio Csar Bicca-Marques Eckhard Heymann Anita Stone News and Book Reviews Brenda Solrzano Ernesto Rodrguez-Luna PSG Chairman Russell A. Mittermeier PSG Deputy Chairman Anthony B. Rylands Christoph Schwitzer

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Neotropical Primates A Journal of the Neotropical Section of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group Conservation International 2011 Crystal Drive, Suite 500, Arlington, VA 22202, USA ISSN 1413-4703 Abbreviation: Neotrop. Primates Editors-In-Chief: Erwin Palacios, Conservacin Internacional Colombia, Bogot DC, Colombia Jessica Ward Lynch, Institute for Society and Genetics, University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA Co-editors: Bruna Bezerra, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA Liliana Corts Ortiz, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Jlio Csar Bicca-Marques, Pontifcia Universidade Catlica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brasil Eckhard Heymann, Deutsches Primatenzentrum, Gttingen, Germany Anita Stone, California Lutheran University, ousand Oaks, CA, USA Founding Editors Anthony B. Rylands, Global Wildlife Conservation, Austin, TX, USA Ernesto Rodrguez-Luna, Instituto de Neuroetologa, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Mxico Editorial Board Hannah M. Buchanan-Smith, University of Stirling, Stirling, Scotland, UK Carolyn M. Crockett, Regional Primate Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA Stephen F. Ferrari, Universidade Federal do Sergipe, Aracaj, Brazil Russell A. Mittermeier, Global Wildlife Conservation, Austin, TX, USA Marta D. Mudry, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina Anthony Rylands, Global Wildlife Conservation, Austin, TX, USA Karen B. Strier, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA Maria Emlia Yamamoto, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Brazil Primate Specialist Group Chairman: Russell A. Mittermeier Deputy Chairs: Anthony B. Rylands and Christoph Schwitzer Executive Secretary: Ella M. Outlaw Vice Chairs, Section on Great Apes: Dirck Byler and Serge Wich Vice Chair, Section on Small Apes: Susan Cheyne Vice Chairs, Section on Human-Primate Interactions: Sin Waters and Susan Cheyne Regional Vice Chairs—Neotropics Mesoamerica: Liliana Corts-Ortiz Andean Countries: Erwin Palacios, Eckhard W. Heymann, Fanny M. Cornejo, Stella de la Torre, and Diana C. Guzmn Brazil and the Guianas: M. Ceclia M. Kierul, Fabiano Rodrigues de Melo, Maurcio Talebi, and Leandro Jerusalinsky Southern Cone: Martin Kowalewski Regional Vice Chairs —Africa Rachel Ashegbofe Ikemeh, Inza Kon, David Osei, and Janette Wallis Regional Vice Chairs —Madagascar Christoph Schwitzer, Jonah Ratsimbazafy, and Steig Johnson Regional Vice Chairs — Asia China: Baoguo Li South-east Asia/Indochina: Jatna Supriatna, Arif Setiawan, Christian Roos, Benjamin M. Rawson, Ramesh Boonratana, Le Khac Quyet, and Duc Hoang Minh South Asia: Sanjay Molur and Dilip Chetry Red List Authority: Sanjay Molur, Christoph Schwitzer, and Liz Williamson Layout: Patricia Salinas Garzn, Bogot, DC IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group logo courtesy of Stephen D. Nash, 2002. Front cover: White-cheeked spider monkey ( Ateles marginatus ). Photo taken at Cristalino Private Heritage Reserve (RPPN), northern Mato Grosso, Brazil. December 2016. Photo taken by Jessica Ward Lynch. is issue of Neotropical Primates was kindly sponsored by the Margot Marsh Biodiversity Foundation, 432 Walker Road, Great Falls, Virginia 22066, USA, and the Los Angeles Zoo, Director John R. Lewis, 5333 Zoo Drive, Los Angeles, California 90027, USA.

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1 A DEMOGRAPHIC DYNAMICS OF PERUVIAN BLACKFACED SPIDER MONKEYS ATELES CHAMEK REINTRODUCED IN THE PERUVIAN AMAZON Farah Carrasco-Rueda 1 and Ral Bello 2 1 School of Natural Resources and Environment, 103 Black Hall, PO Box 116455, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA. Email: 2 Kawsay Biological Station Taricaya Ecological Reserve. Puerto Maldonado-Per. Email: A bstract Reintroductions of animals are important conservation tools for dierent taxa around the world. A reintroduction program in the Peruvian Amazon is focusing on black-faced spider monkeys ( Ateles chamek ). We investigated life-history parameters such as stage-specic survival and female fertility rates using a capture-mark-recapture framework and data from the litera ture. We estimated growth rate and probability of extinction for a reintroduced group using matrix models, as well as testing whether population growth depends more on survival of juvenile females or adult females. Our results suggest the popula tion of the reintroduced group is decreasing. After projecting the group size for the next 25 years using dierent scenarios, we found that in order for the group to persist, survival rate of the female adult stage needs to exceed 79 %. Given that group growth rate is more sensitive to the survival of adult females, management measures actions that target this demographic are required to guarantee survival of the group. Extrapolations of our results are subject to restrictions imposed by the small sample size and the conditions specic to this reintroduction program. However, this study may provide valuable lessons for reintroduction programs attempting the recovery of wild populations of similar species. Keywords: Ateles chamek , Madre de Dios, matrix models, reintroduction Resumen La reintroduccin de animales es una herramienta importante para la conservacin de diferentes taxa a lo largo del mundo. Un programa de reintroduccin en la Amazona peruana est enfocada en monos araa negros ( Ateles chamek ). Investigamos los parmetros de historia de vida tales como la tasa de supervivencia por etapa especca y fertilidad de las hembras, utilizan do el marco de referencia de captura-marca-recaptura y datos de literatura. Estimamos la tasa de crecimiento poblacional y la probabilidad de extincin del grupo reintroducido utilizando modelos matriciales, asimismo, probamos si el crecimiento poblacional depende de la supervivencia en las etapas de hembras juveniles o adultas. Nuestros resultados sugieren que la poblacin del grupo reintroducido est disminuyendo. Despus de proyectar el tamao grupal para los prximos 25 aos utilizando diferentes escenarios, encontramos que para para persistir la tasa de supervivencia de las hembras adultas debe ex ceder 79 %. Dado que la tasa de crecimiento del grupo es ms sensible a la supervivencia de las hembras adultas, las acciones de manejo deben enfocarse en este sector particular de la poblacin para garantizar la supervivencia de la misma. Las extra polaciones de nuestros resultados estn sujetas a restricciones impuestas por el reducido tamao muestral y las condiciones especcas del programa de reintroduccin. Sin embargo, este estudio puede proveer lecciones valiosas para programas de reintroduccin que intenten recuperar poblaciones silvestres de especies similares. Palabras clave: Ateles chamek , Madre de Dios, modelos matriciales, reintroduccin Introduction Reintroductions consist of the re-establishment of species in areas of their historical range where they have become extinct or were extirpated (Seddon et al., 2014). Species from a variety of taxonomic groups have been successfully reintroduced in many parts of the world (barred bandicoot, Backhouse et al., 1994; bison, Pyne et al., 2010; black-foot ed ferret, Santymire et al., 2014; California condor, Walters et al., 2010; golden lion tamarin, Kierul et al., 2012; gray wolf, Bangs and Fritts, 1996; guanaco, Barri, 2016; red wolf, Hinton et al., 2013; scimitar-horned oryx, Woodne and Gilbert, 2016; wild dog, Gusset et al., 2010). Rein troduction programs are considered a conservation tool (Kleiman, 1989; IUCN, 1998), a strategy to deal with de faunation (Barri, 2016), and a way to deal with individu als conscated from illegal animal-tracking operations (IUCN, 2002a). For species with high conservation value, the reintroduction process should be conducted under a well-dened management plan and result in reintroduced

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2 individuals capable of survival in the wild without external intervention (Griths et al., 1989; IUCN, 2002b). Fur ther, long-term post-release monitoring programs of rein troduced individuals or groups should be supported with knowledge about the species’ ecology (Baker, 2002; Tray ford and Farmer, 2012). A number of non-human primate species have been rein troduced into the wild (Konstant and Mittermeier, 1982; Kleiman et al., 1986; King et al., 2011; Beck, 2017) with varying degrees of success. Black-handed spider monkeys ( Ateles georoyi ) on Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama, is an example of a successful reintroduction (Milton and Hopkins, 2005), which started with few individuals and currently has a healthy population. Spider monkeys ( Ateles spp.) are long-lived Neotropical primates that can live > 30 years (Link et al., 2018; Milton and Hopkins, 2005; Ramos-Fernndez et al., 2017), and that exhibit long periods of maternal care (Di Fiore and Campbell, 2005). Male:female sex ratios in wild popula tions of Ateles chamek (aka Ateles belzebuth chamek ) were reported in the range of 0.56-1 for adult and subadults (mean 0.77 0.22 SD, Shimooka et al., 2008). Spider monkeys have a high degree of ssion-fusion dynam ics (Aureli et al., 2008; Di Fiore and Campbell, 2005), where females disperse from social groups in search of new mates whereas males are philopatric (McFarland Symington, 1988). Unfortunately, most spider monkey species are considered as “Endangered”, principally due to their long-lived, slow reproducing, and social nature makes them susceptible to habitat loss and overhunting (Mittermeier et al., 1989). e Taricaya Rescue Center started the “Program for the reintroduction of spider monkeys in the southeastern Peruvian Amazon” in 2009 with the goal of reintroducing rescued and rehabilitated black-faced spider monkeys ( Ateles chamek ) to the wild. e Peruvian government legally recognizes this program and approved of its management plan in 2012. Most of the spider monkeys in the program were seized from il legal trackers or were being kept illegally as pets in Peru. Twenty two black-faced spider monkeys were released between 2011 and 2017 with the goal of establishing a stable, self-sustaining group. Since reintroduction, the program has carefully tracked the details of the release process and post-release monitoring activities, including monitoring animal behavior and resource use by the rein troduced spider monkeys (Bello et al., 2018). e future of the group, constituted by 13 individuals (10 females and three males) in 2017, is uncertain. Information on demographic dynamics and projections of population size over the next few decades is needed to help guide program management decisions and for planning future reintroductions. In this paper, we address the following questions: (1) What are the stage-specic survival rates and female fertility rates for the group of reintroduced black-faced spider monkeys? (2) What is the group’s population growth rate? and, (3) What is the probability of the group extinction in the up coming decades? Based on what is expected for species that are slow to mature and have low reproductive rates (Stahl and Oli, 2006), we hypothesize that the population growth rate of the reintroduced group of black-faced spider mon keys is more sensitive to the survival of adults than to any of the other life stages. In this study we faced the challenge of working with the small sample size of only a single group of reintroduced black spider monkeys for estimating demo graphic parameters, which is why we also chose to include estimates found in the literature. e sample size limita tion will restrict the extent to which context our results can be extrapolated, however, we consider this study to be important since reintroduction programs are only getting more common, but data available on reintroduced popula tions are scarce and the outcomes of these programs are not commonly reported. M ethods Study Area e reintroduction area is located on the south bank of the Madre de Dios River inside the Tambopata Nation al Reserve in Madre de Dios Department, Tambopata Province, and Tambopata District in southeastern Per (12.882” S, 69.227” W, 601 m.a.s.l.) (Fig. 1). is area consists primarily of subtropical wet forest according to Holdridge life zones system; it may ood dur ing the wet season (INRENA, 2003) and it experiences an average temperature and annual precipitation of 26.5 C and 2,387 mm, respectively (SENAMHI, 2015). e dry season occurs from May to September and the wet season from October to April. Figure 1. Map with the location of the reintroduction area in Madre de Dios, Per. Spider Monkey Data We utilized data from seven consecutive years (2011 to 2017) and four release events (2011, 2013, 2014, and 2016) of rehabilitated black-faced spider monkeys ( At eles chamek ). Data were provided by the “Program for

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3 the reintroduction of spider monkeys in the southeastern Peruvian Amazon”. Data were collected by R. Bello and a team of volunteers during the post-release monitoring program. Individuals were identied by their body char acteristics, face coloration and behavior, and were each assigned a name (Table S1 in Supplementary Material). During the rst three months post-release, the activity of each individual was constantly monitored. Details about the monitoring procedure can be found in Bello (2018) and Bello et al. (2018). In the year following the postrelease period, individuals were monitored during 2-3 days a week. Finally, following the rst year after release, individuals were monitored twice a month to count in dividuals. Some individuals were equipped with radio tracking collars that allowed them to be located more eas ily. Individuals were considered dead if they were not sighted again after a month of searching. Each year that an individual was sighted again was considered a “recap ture” in our analysis. Data collection on reintroduced black-faced spider monkeys followed international stan dard guidelines for non-human primate reintroductions (IUCN, 2002b). Following MacFarland Symington (1988) and Shimooka et al. (2008), each individual was assigned to the follow ing life stages: infants (0-12 months of life), juveniles (1260 months of life), subadult (60-96 months), and adult (after 96 months or after the eight year of life). e data included in this study involved 28 individual life histo ries, 22 of them corresponding to individuals that were released into the wild when they were juveniles, sub-adult, or adults, and six of them that were subsequently born in the wild (Table S1 in Supplementary Material). Only six of the 22 reintroduced individuals survived in the wild to 2017. Predation by harpy eagles ( Harpia harpyja ; three events) and casual hunting (one event) accounted for the death of four reintroduced individuals. In seven cases (six females and one male) individuals disappeared and their current whereabouts remains unknown. ough they may have dispersed out of the study area, they were considered as deceased for the purpose of this analysis. In ve cases, four of which were female, individuals in poor health conditions (individuals with fractures or infec tions) or individuals who separated from the group (Bello et al., 2018) were removed from the wild by the monitor ing team and were taken to the Taricaya Rescue Center to recover. In some cases, a second reintroduction attempt took place once the individuals recovered to good condi tion. For the analysis, we did not consider data from individuals following a second attempt at reintroduction. Between 2013 and 2016, six individuals were born in the wild from reintroduced parents. In 2017, the group of reintroduced black-faced spider monkeys consisted of 12 individuals (1 adult male, ve adult females, 2 young males, 4 young females), including six of the original re introduced individuals and six new individuals that were born into this group post-reintroduction. Parameter Estimation Capture-Mark-Recapture Model We used a Capture-Mark-Recapture (CMR) framework and Cormarck-Jolly-Seber (CJS) models to estimate the survival parameters as used in other studies (Campell and Lagueux, 2005; Cormack, 1964; Kraus et al., 2008; Ol sen and Vllestad, 2001). We estimated age-dependent survival-rate parameters for dierent life stages assuming post-breeding census. We assumed all individuals had the same probability of being detected, and that there was no migration into the group. To generate the models, we transformed observation histories for each individual into a Mark format database (Table S2, in Supplementary Mate rial). Removal but not subsequent reintroduction of indi viduals were accounted for in the analysis, and we only con sidered individuals’ life histories up until the rst removal event. For analysis we pooled infants and juveniles into a single life stage “young” (infants correspond to young 1), as well as pooling adults and sub-adults for the analysis, since reproductive maturity has been reported to occur after the fth year of life, especially in males (Klein, 1971; Eisen berg, 1976; Milton, 1981; van Roosmalen, 1985), but was also observed in females in this population (Bello et al., 2018; R. Bello personal communication). We generated three models using data from 2011 until 2017, considering each year as a discrete occasion. e rst model was based on age and sex; the second only us ing age of the individuals; and the third model was based on age from the female individuals only. Specic survival rates for females were used for further analyses related to fertility rate. We used program E-SURGE (Choquet et al., 2008; Choquet et al., 2011) to estimate probability of survival. Models were set to have the same probability of detection for all individuals and a recapture probability of one since all individuals were monitored. For details on how we dened the eects on the parameters for each model, see Supplementary material. We ran the mod els and selected the best model based on deviance values, quasi Akaike information criterion (QAIC) and QAIC corrected for small sample sizes (QAICc). e best model was used to estimate the following parameters: probabil ity of an individual in young 1 stage to survive and grow to young 2 stage (P1); probability of young 2 stage to survive and grow to young 3 stage (P2); probability of young 3 stage to survive and grow to young 4 stage (P3); probability of young stage 4 to survive and grow to adult stage (P4); and the probability of individuals surviving and remaining as adults the next year (G5, Fig. 2). We considered P2 to P4 to be the same (see Supplementary Materials for model details). Due to the small sample size, we used a randomization procedure to generate sim ulated sets of samples. For this we draw one individual history at a time with replacement and extracted it from the pool of individuals of this study. With the randomly reduced pool of life-histories we ran the selected model in

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4 E-SURGE using the package “R2SURGE” (Hines, 2017) in R (R Development Core Team, 2015) to estimate the survival probabilities. We repeated this 200 times to al low the model to approach the distribution of the esti mated parameters. Next, we estimated the mean value of survival probability parameters and the condence in tervals for each of the dierent life stages. Additionally, we estimated the percentage of individuals per stage that survived along the study period, without considering the individuals that were removed from the wild. Fertility rate In order to estimate the fertility rate for females in the adult stage, we used an average inter-birth interval 34.5 5.8 months (2.88 0.48 years) reported for A. chamek from wild populations in Manu National Park, Per (McFarland Symington, 1988). In other words, on average 0.35 (range of values 0.3-0.42) individuals were born per year. Since spider monkeys rarely produce twins (Link et al., 2006), we standardized the number of ospring per birth to one. We considered the probabil ity of newborns to be female as 0.73 (female:male sex ratio among neonates 2.67:1 for A. chamek in Syming ton, 1987; and 2.7:1 for A. belzebuth Link et al., 2018) so that the fecundity rate or average number of daugh ters per female spider monkey per year was 0.26 (range of values 0.22 0.31). Using data from our study site (2011-2017), we estimated fertility rates assuming postbreeding census calculated as l(i)/l(i-1), where l(i) is the probability of surviving from birth to age i (Caswell, 2001). e estimated fertility rate for reintroduced in dividuals was pooled into the life stage “adults”. Stage-Structured Matrix Models We constructed a matrix model (Caswell, 2001) including survival rates per life stage (Fig. 2), including the fertility rate of adults (F6). For estimating population growth rate ( ) of the reintro duced group, we used the stage-specic survival-rate pa rameter estimates obtained with the CMR analysis. We projected the group size for the next 25 years a period of time that covers the life cycle of an individual spider mon key. For our projection, we used nine individual females (number of females in the group by 2017) as initial group and dierent sets of values for the stage-specic survival parameters: (A) the estimated values, and (B) using pa rameter values reported in the literature for a wild popu lation of A. chamek (survival probabilities young 1 = 0.67 and adults = 0.97; McFarland Symington, 1988) and A. georoyi (young = 0.9, from young to adult females = 0.9; Milton and Hopkins 2005). We ran an elasticity analysis to determine which life-history parameters the population growth rate was more sensitive to, proportionally. With this information, we generated a fourth scenario (C) changing the parameter to which pop ulation growth was more sensitive by the threshold value at which the population would start growing if all other survival rate parameters had a value of one. For the analy ses, we used the “popbio” package (Stubben and Milligan, 2007) in R (R Development Core Team, 2015). Figure 2. Life cycle graph of reintroduced black-faced spider monkeys ( Ateles chamek ) in Madre de Dios, Per, between 20112016. P1-P4 are the probability of survival from one state to the next. F6 is the fertility rate of adult individuals. G5 is the prob ability to remain in adult stage. Circles represent stage classes; arrows and arcs represent transitions in survival and fertility rates. Results Parameter Estimation Direct estimations using the data from individual histories showed that the percentage of individuals that survived the entire study period were: 100 % for young in their rst year of life (for both sex, 4 females and 2 males), 83 % for fe males (n = 6) and 100 % for males (n = 1) in young stage years 2 to 4, and 45 % for adult females (n = 11) and 20 % for adult males (n = 5). Under the CMR framework the model based on data from only adult females showed the lowest QAIC value (Table 1). We used the survival rate parameters obtained from this model to estimate specic fertility rates for females and for further analysis (Table 2). Table 1. Metrics of CMR models for Ateles chamek , Madre de Dios, Per, data from years 2011 to 2017. QAICc is QAIC cor rected for small sample sizes. Model Number of Parameters Deviance QAIC QAIC c Stage & Sex 7 51.99 65.99 67.54 Stage 4 53.55 61.55 62.09 Females 4 34.25 42.25 43.02

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5 Table 2. Stage-specic survival and fertility rates for Ateles cha mek in Madre de Dios, Per, based on data from 2011 to 2017, for the following scenarios: (A) using estimated parameter values, (B) using parameter values reported in the literature (McFarland Symington, 1988; Milton and Hopkins, 2005), and (C) chang ing the parameter to which population growth is more sensitive to the value at which the population starts growing if all the other parameters are maximized. CI = Condence interval. Parameter Stage A 95 % CI B C Survival rate Young 1 0.717 0.711-0.724 0.67 1 Young 2 1 0.9 1 Young 3 1 0.9 1 Young 4 1 0.9 1 Adult 0.81 0.809-0.813 0.967 0.79 Fertility rate Adult 0.25 0.09 Stage-Structured Matrix Models According to the group growth rates estimated using life history parameters for female individuals (scenario A), the reintroduced group will likely decrease (lambda = 0.98). Under scenario A, we expect that the group would de crease to only ve individuals (Figure 3) over the next 25 years. Alternatively, scenario B (lambda = 1.06) predicts an increase in the population to 40 female individuals (24 adults and 16 young) by year 25. e elasticity analy sis indicated that group growth rate was most sensitive to small proportional changes in the adult stage survival rate under scenarios A and B (elasticity values 0.49 and 0.67 respectively). When values of all other parameters are maximized (values of 1.0; scenario C), adult survival rate must be higher than 0.79 to achieve a positive group growth rate (Fig. 3). Figure 3. Projections for a reintroduced group of Ateles chamek in Madre de Dios, Per using data from 2011 to 2017 under scenarios with dierent sets of values of survival probability: (A) using the estimated parameter values, (B) using parameter values reported in the literature (McFarland Symington, 1988; Milton and Hopkins, 2005), (C) changing the parameter (to which group growth is more sensitive) to the value at which the group starts growing if all the other stage-specic parameters are maximized. Discussion Our results indicate that in order for this reintroduced group of black-faced spider monkeys to persist over time, it would be necessary to improve the probability of survival for female individuals, especially those in adult stages. e female-only model relies on the critical assumption that the group requires the presence of adult males to ensure its persistence in time, thus, the importance of males in the group cannot be disregarded. e reintroduced population of Ateles georoyi on Barro Colorado Island showed that the presence of one adult male might be enough to main tain the group (Milton and Hopkins, 2005). By 2017, our study group included one adult male, one infant male, and

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6 o ne male juvenile of four years old. Losing the male in dividuals in the group will imply its extinction. e re introduction program will need to guarantee the presence of males in the group over time to allow for breeding. Under scenario A, and as a result of our small sampling size, the estimated survival probability for young 2, young 3 and young 4 was 1.0. e lowest estimated probability of survival was for female individuals in young 1 life stage. Probability of adult survival may be biased because we only had access to seven years of data, which is not enough to estimate real adult survival rates, considering adults of other species in the genus have been reported to live ~ 30 years (Milton and Hopkins, 2005; Ramos-Fernndez et al., 2017). is should be taken into account when consider ing whether or not to utilize the estimated survival rates from this study in other contexts. e group remaining by 2017 was composed by 9 female individuals, accompanied by three males, which can be considered to be adapted to wild conditions. Group population growth rate based on estimates from our study group (scenario A) indicated that the reintroduced group was decreasing and would be close to extinction in 25 years. However, projections obtained under scenario B using parameters from the literature showed the potential for an increase in population size, reaching 40 individuals in 25 years. is last scenario is based on survival rate value for a combination of wild ( A. chamek ) and reintroduced ( A. georoyi ) individuals, which imply dierent conditions that may or may not be reached by the study group. e elasticity analysis shows that the survival rate of adult females is critical for population growth. ese re sults dier from those obtained in an elasticity analysis of a free-ranging Ateles georoyi population in Yucatn, Mexico, where survivorship of females during the rst 5 years was critical (Ramos-Fernndez et al., 2017; RamosFernndez et al., 2018). e same study also considered critical the fertility of females between 17 and 21 years old, which could not be measured in this study since we ignored the exact age of the oldest adult individuals in the group. In the reintroduction experience at BCI, although only four individuals (3 females, 1 male) survived from a group of at least 18 individuals that were originally released, this was sucient to allow the establishment of a group that persisted over the rst seven years of the project (Milton and Hopkins, 2005). Even though the context and spe cies considered are dierent from this study, it provides a good example of how resilient species in the genus Ateles can be. In this study, the group of monkeys reintroduced in Madre de Dios included ve adult females of repro ductive age and only an adult male of reproductive age since 2014, when a second male of reproductive age was killed in a hunting event. By December 2016, six new individuals had been born in the wild, including two o spring of the male killed in 2014. Since it is possible that inbreeding problems will appear with only one reproduc tive male in the group, the survival of the other males until their reproductive maturity needs to be guaranteed. In order to secure the persistence of the population over time, female survival rate of adult females needs to remain above the specic thresholds of 0.79, below which the population size of the group will not increase. ere are several factors that were not considered in our analysis of group population growth and may have aect ed our results. First, under the CMR framework it is not possible to distinguish true mortality from permanent emigration (Hunter et al., 2010). is may be critical for spider monkeys because females emigrate to other groups. Indeed, apparently two of the reintroduced females, which are not in the group anymore, could have left after remaining in the group for only two and three years (R. Bello, personal communication). ese individuals were in the age range for dispersal for Ateles belzebuth belzebuth (63 to 79 months, Link et al., 2018). Moreover, ve fe male individuals were sighted two kilometers away from the study group in August 2017, in an area where the species is locally absent. According to Shimooka et al. (2008), females may travel long distances searching for new groups to join. It is likely that some of the individu als sighted away from the original group were considered as deceased in this study. Another factor not considered in our analysis is natal philopatry of males (McFarland Symington, 1988). While male immigration may occur under certain demographic circumstances (Aureli et al., 2013), this exibility in their social system could inu ence the sex ratio in the group (Aureli et al., 2013). In addition, we do not include habitat measurements that would be useful to estimate the carrying capacity of the area where the reintroductions are taking place. Further, a study of the predator presence would be instrumental for management decisions, since they play a key role in the persistence of any group of spider monkeys (Shimoo ka et al., 2008). Management actions are necessary to avoid extinction of the group of black-faced spider monkeys reintroduced to the Tambopata National Reserve in Per. Specically, ac tions should focus on minimizing mortality risk of adults and males in general. Reintroduced individuals that were previously kept as pets may have issues in their adapta tion to the wild (Bello, 2018), despite the great eorts to prepare them made by the reintroduction program specialists. Reducing access of local hunters to the area, and temporary removal and subsequent release of injured individuals also might contribute to population growth. In addition, future attempts to increase the size of the group should focus on reintroducing reproductively t individuals that arrive at the Taricaya Rescue Center in early life stages. Further, individuals that will be re leased together should spend their rehabilitation period as a group, avoiding future negative interactions in the wild. To have a self-sustaining population, establishment

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7 of other groups of reintroduced individuals in the same area would be benecial, as it would allow movement of females among groups. e nal goal is to create a meta population where the groups or populations could inter act and persist over time. Finally, extrapolations of our results to populations of free-ranging spider monkeys is not recommended due to the restrictions imposed to our results as a consequence of small sample size and specic conditions (i.e., intense post-monitoring program, reintroduction area without human activities). However, the life-history parameters we estimated may serve as reference for other reintroduc tion eorts. Most reintroduction programs start with only a few individuals sometimes releasing only one group that may not persist in the wild in the mid-term. However, this study may provide valuable lessons for re introduction programs attempting the recovery of wild populations of similar species. Acknowledgments We thank Fernando Rosemberg and Stuart Timson from Taricaya Ecological Reserve, Gabriel Ramos-Fernndez for sharing important references for this work, Madan Oli for supporting FCR during the process of conceiving the ideas of this article and early review, Diego Juarez-Sanchez for early review of the manuscript, Jean-Dominique Lebre ton, Miguel Acevedo, James Hines, for their guidance in data analysis, and John Blake, Dominique Lebreton, and Mathew Hallett for their review of the manuscript. We also thank Robinson Botero-Arias for support during early stages of data analysis, and Flora W. Marynak and Liselot Lange for grammar and spelling revision. References Aureli, F., Di Fiore, A., Murillo-Chacon, E., Kawamura, S., and Schaner, C. M. (2013) Male philopatry in spider monkeys revisited. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 152(1): 86. Aureli, F., Schaner, C. M., Boesch, C., Bearder, S. K., Call, J., Chapman, C. A., Connor, R., Di Fiore, A., Dunbar, R. I. M., Henzi, S. P., Holekamp, K., Korstjens, A. H., Layton, R., Lee, P., Lehmann, J., Manson, J. H., Ramos-Fernndez, G., Strier, K. B., Van Schaik, C. P. 2008. Fission-Fusion Dynamics: New Research Frame works. Curr. Anthropol. 49: 627. Backhouse, G. N., Clark, T. W. and Reading, R. P. 1994. Reintroductions for recovery of the eastern barred bandicoot Perameles gunnii in Victoria, Australia. In: Reintroduction biology of Australian and New Zealand fauna , M. Serena (ed), pp.209. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Chipping Norton, Victoria, Australia. Baker, L. R. 2002. Guidelines for nonhuman primate reintroductions. Re-introduction NEWS 21: 29. Bangs, E. E. and Fritts, S. H. 1996. Reintroducing the gray wolf to central Idaho and Yellowstone National Park. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 24: 402. Barri, F. R. 2016. Reintroducing Guanaco in the upper belt of Central Argentina: Using population viability analysis to evaluate extinction risk and management priorities. Plos One 11(10): e0164806. Beck, B. B. 2017. A History of Primate Reintroduction. Website: http:// www.drbenjaminbeck.com . Accessed 1 April 2018. Bello, R. 2018. Comportamiento de monos araas ( At eles chamek ) reintroducidos en el sureste de la amazonia peruana. MSc esis, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima, Peru. Pp. 100. Bello, R., Rosemberg, F., Timson, S. and Escalante, W. 2018. Importancia del monitoreo postliberacin de monos araa ( Ateles chamek ) reintroducidos en el sur este de la Amazonia peruana. In: La primatologa en Latinoamrica 2. Ediciones IVIC, B. Urbani, M. Kow alewski, R. Grasseto Teixeira da Cunha, S. de la Torre and L. Corts-Ortiz (eds). Instituto Venezolano de In vestigaciones Cientcas (IVIC). Caracas, Venezuela. Pp. 625 Campell, C. L., Lagueux, C. J. 2005. Survival probability estimates for large juvenile and adult green turtles ( Che lonia mydas ) exposed to an artisanal marine turtle sh ery in the western Caribbean. Herpetologica 61: 91. Caswell, H. 2001. Matrix population models . Second edi tion. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Massachusetts, USA. Choquet, R. and Nogue, E. 2011. E-SURGE 1.8 User’s manual . CEFE, Montpellier, France. Choquet, R., Lauriane, R. and Pradel, R. 2008 . Program E-SURGE: a software for tting multievent models. In: Modeling Demographic Processes in Marked Populations , D. L. omson, E. G. Cooch, M. J. Conroy (eds), pp.845. Environmental and Ecological Statistics, Springer, New York, USA. Cormack, R. M. 1964. Estimates of survival from sight ing of marked animals. Biometrika 51: 429. Di Fiore, A. and Campbell, C. 2005. e atelines: Varia tion in ecology, behavior, and social organization. In: Primates in perspective , C. J. Campbell, A. F. Fuentes, K. C. MacKinnon, M. Panger, and S. Bearder (eds), pp155. Oxford University Press, Oxford, United Kingdom. Dreitz, V. J. 2006. Issues in species recovery: An examplebased on the Wyoming toad. Bioscience 56: 765. Eisenberg, J. F. 1976. Communication mechanisms and social integration in the black spider monkey, Ateles fus ciceps robustus and related species. Smithsonian Contri bution to Zoology 213: 1 Griths, B., Scott, J., Carpenter, J. W. and Reed, C. 1989. Translocation as a species conservation tool: Sta tus and strategy. Science 245: 477. Gusset, M., Stewart, G. B., Bowler, D. E. and Pullin, A. S. 2010. Wild dog reintroductions in South Africa: A systematic review and cross-validation of an endangered species recovery programme. J. Nat. Conserv. 18(3): 230.

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8 Hines, J. E. 2017. R2ESURGER package to automate use of E-SURGE software. USGS-PWRC. http://www. mbr-pwrc.usgs.gov/software/r2esurge.html. Hinton, J. W., Chamberlain, M. J., Rabon, D. R., Jr. 2013. Red Wolf ( Canis rufus ) Recovery: A Review with Suggestions for Future Research. Animals 3: 722. Hunter, C. M., Caswell, H., Runge, M. C., Regehr, E. V., Amstrup, S. C. and Stirling, I. 2010. Climate change threatens polar bear populations: a stochastic demo graphic analysis. Ecology 91(10): 2883. INRENA. 2003. Mapicacin y Evaluacin Forestal del Bosque de Produccin Permanente del Departamento de Madre de Dios. Instituto Nacional de Recursos Na turales, Lima, Peru. IUCN. 1998. International Union for Conservation of Nature Guidelines for Re-introductions. IUCN/SSC Re-introductions Specialist Group. IUCN Gland, Swit zerland and Cambridge, United Kingdom. IUCN. 2002a. Guidelines for the Placement of Cons cated Animals. IUCN/SSC Re-introduction Specialist Group. IUCN Gland, Switzerland, and Environmental Research and Wildlife Development Agency, Abu Dha bi, United Arab Emirates. Website: https://portals.iucn. org/library/sites/library/les/documents/2002-004.pdf. Accessed 1 April 2018 IUCN. 2002b. Guidelines for Nonhuman Primate Reintroductions. Special: Primate Issue. Newsletter of the Re-introduction Specialist Group of IUCN’s Spe cies Survival Commission. News Re-introduction 21(6): 1560. Kierul, M. C. M., Ruiz-Miranda, C. R., Procopio de Oliveira, P., Beck, B. B., Martins, A., Dietz, J. M., Rambaldi, D. M., Baker, A. J. 2012. e Golden lion tamarin Leontopithecus rosalia : a conservation success story. Int. Zoo Yearb. 46: 36. King, T., Chamberlan, C. and Courage, A. 2011. Assessing initial reintroduction success in long-lived primates by quantifying survival, reproduction, and dispersal param eters: Western lowland gorillas ( Gorilla gorilla gorilla ) in Congo and Gabon. Int . J. Primatol. 33(1): 134. Kleiman, D. G. 1989. Reintroductions of captive mam mals for conservation: guidelines for reintroducing en dangered species into the wild. BioScience 39: 152. Kleiman, D. G., Beck, B. B., Dietz, J. M., Dietz, L. A., Ballou, J. D. and Coimbra-Filho, A. F. 1986. Conser vation Program for the Golden Lion Tamarin: Captive Research and Management, Ecological Studies, Educa tional Strategies, and Reintroduction. In: Primates , K. Benirschke (ed), pp959). Proceedings in Life Sci ences. Springer, New York, USA. Konstant, W. R. and Mittermeier, R. A. 1982. Introduc tion, reintroduction and translocation of Neotropical primates: past experiences and future possibilities. Int. Zoo Yearb. 22: 69. Kraus, C., Eberle, M., Kappeler, P. M. 2008. e costs of risky male behaviour: sex dierences in seasonal survival in a small sexually monomorphic primate. Proc. R. Soc. B. 275: 1635. Link, A., Milich, K., Di Fiore, A. 2018. Demography and life history of a group of white-bellied spider monkeys ( Ateles belzebuth ) in western Amazonia. Am. J. Primatol. 80 (8). Link, A., Palma, A. C., Vlez, A. and de Luna, A.G. 2006. Costs of twins in free-ranging white-bellied spider mon keys ( Ateles belzebuth belzebuth ) at Tinigua National Park, Colombia. Primates 47(2): 131. McFarland Symington, M. 1988. Demography, Ranging Patterns, and Activity Budgets of Black Spider Monkeys ( Ateles paniscus chamek ) in the Manu National Park, Peru. Am. J. Primatol. 15: 45. Milton, K. 1981. Estimates of reproductive parameters for free-ranging Ateles georoyi . Primates 22(4): 574. Milton, K., and Hopkins, M. E. 2005. Growth of a rein troduced spider monkey ( Ateles georoyi ) population on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. In: New Perspectives in the Study of Mesoamerican Primates: Distribution, Ecol ogy, Behavior, and Conservation , A. Estrada, P. A. Gar ber, M. S. M. Pavelka, and L. LeAndra Luecke (eds), pp 417. Springer, New York, USA. Mittermeier, R. A., Kinzey, W. G. and Mast, R. B. 1989. Neotropical primate conservation. J. Hum. Evol. 18: 597. Olsen, E. M., and Vollestad, L. A. 2001. Estimates of survival of stream-dwelling brown trout using markrecaptures. J. Fish Biol . 59: 1622. DOI: 10.1006/ jfbi.2001.1812 Pyne, M. I., Byrne, K. M., Holfelder, K. A., McManus, L., Buhnerkempe, M., Burch, N., Childers, E., Hamilton, S., Schroeder, G., Doherty, P. F. 2010. Survival and Breeding Transitions for a Reintroduced Bison Population: a Multi state Approach . J. Wildl. Manage. 74: 1463. R Development Core Team. 2015. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. Website: http://www.r-project.org. Accessed 10 April 2017. Ramos-Fernndez G., Smith Aguilar, S., Spaan, D., Ran gel Rivera, C. E., Schaner, C. M., Vick, L. G. and Aureli, F. 2017. Demography and population viability of spider monkeys Ateles georoyi . In: Proceedings of the 54th Annual Meeting of the Association for Tropical Biol ogy and Conservation , pp74. Mrida, Yucatn, Mxico. Ramos-Fernndez, G., Aureli, F., Schaner, C. M. and Vick, L. G. 2018. Ecologa, comportamiento y conser vacin de los monos araa ( Ateles georoyi ): 20 aos de estudio. Cap. 8. In: La primatologa en Latinoamrica 2. Ediciones IVIC, B. Urbani, M. Kowalewski, R. Gras seto Teixeira da Cunha, S. de la Torre and L. CortsOrtiz (eds). Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientcas (IVIC). Caracas, Venezuela. Pp. 531–-543. Santymire, R. M., Livieri, T. M., Branvold-Faber, H., Marinari, P. E. 2014. e Black-Footed Ferret: On the Brink of Recovery? Reproductive Sciences in Animal Con servation: Progress and Prospects 753: 119. Seddon, P. J., Griths, C. J., Soorae, P. S. and Armstrong, D. P. 2014. Reversing defaunation: restoring species in a changing world. Science 345(6195): 406.

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9 SENAMHI. 2015. Datos histricos. Website: http:// www.senamhi.gob.pe/main_mapa.php?t=dHi. Ac cessed 17 Apr 2017. Shimooka Y., Campbell, C., Di Fiore, A., Felton, A., Izawa, K., Nishimura, A., Ramos-Fernndez, G. and Wallace, R. 2008. Demography and group composition of Ateles . In: Spider monkeys: Behavior, ecology and evolu tion of the Genus Ateles , C. J. Campbell, (ed), pp329– 350. Universidad Cambridge Press, New York, USA. Stahl J. T. and Oli, M. K. 2006. Relative importance of avian life-history variables to population growth rate. Ecol. Model. 198: 23. Stubben, C. J. and Milligan, B. G. (2007) Estimating and Analyzing Demographic Models Using the popbio Package in R. J. Stat. Softw. 22: 11. Trayford, H. R. and Farmer, K. H. 2012. An assessment of the use of telemetry for primate reintroductions. J. Nat. Conserv. 20: 311. Van Roosmalen, M. G. M. 1985. Habitat preferences, diet, feeding strategy and social organization of the black spider monkey ( Ateles paniscus paniscus Linnaeus 1758) in Surinam. Acta Amaz. 15(3/4): 1-238. Walters, J. R., Derrickson, S. R., Fry, D. M., Haig, S. M., Marzlu, J. M., and Wunderle, J. M. 2010. Status of the California condor ( Gymnogyps californianus ) and eorts to achieve its recovery. Auk 127: 969. Woodne, T., Gilbert, T. 2016. e fall and rise of the scimitar-horned oryx: a case study of ex-situ conserva tion and reintroduction in practice. Antelope conserva tion: from diagnosis to action [Conservation Science and Practice no 16]: 280. Supplementary material Model parameter denitions We dened eects on the parameters for each model as fol lows. e rst model is based on age and sex and we use the notation g(3).a(1,2 3 4) + g(3).a(5) & g(1) + g(4).a(1,2 3 4) + g(4).a(5)&g(2), In this model, g(3) correspond to young males, g(4) to young females, g(1) to adult males, g(2) to adult females, and “a” refers to the age of young individuals; the plus (+) sign separates individuals by stage and sex. In the section that corresponds to males, g(3).a(1,2,3,4) + g(3).a(5) & g(1), the rst part (before the plus sign) accounts for the young males who stayed in that stage during the rst four years of life. Since we deem the youngest individuals to have lower survival probabilities, we are considering the survival probabilities for ages 2, 3, 4 to be the same, the notation is (a(1,2 3 4)). e sec ond part correspond to adult male individuals, including young males that reached the fth year of life and became adults (g(3).a(5)) as well as the ones that were adults when released into the wild (g(1)). For female individuals, the interpretation is similar. In the second model, the notation was g(1 2) & g(3 4).a(5) + g(3 4).a(1,2 3 4). e rst part before the plus sign cor responds to the adult stages including individuals of both sexes that were already adults (g(1 2)) and the young in dividuals from both sexes that became adults in their fth year of life (g(3 4).a(5)). e second part corresponds to young individuals of both sexes during each of their rst 4 years of life: g(3 4).a(1,2,3,4). In the third model, we dened the eects on the param eters for the model as follows: g(1)&g(2).a(5)+g(2).a(1,2 3 4). e rst part before the plus sign corresponds to the female adult stages that were already adults (g(1)) and the young female individuals that became adults in their fth year of life (g(2).a(5)). e second part corresponds to young female individuals during each of their rst 4 years of life: g(2).a(1,2 3 4). Table S1. Data for 28 individual life histories ID Sex Age when released 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Comments RIVER female adult 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ABIE female 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 MAQUI female adult 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 Removed NIZZA female adult 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 Predated WAWA female 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 Born in the wild LUCHA female adult 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 MAYA female adult 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 Disappeared CHOLA female adult 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 Disappeared LILA female adult 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 SHUSHU female adult 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 Disappeared

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10 (cont.) ID Sex Age when released 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Comments CHINA female adult 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 GAIA female 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 Born in the wild NICOL female adult 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Disappeared FE female adult 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Disappeared LOLA female 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 Born in the wild ALIAH female 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 Born in the wild NENA female 4 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Removed same year of release FLACA female 3 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Disappeared PACHA female 4 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Removed next year of release MARUJA female 5 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Removed next year of release SAMBO male 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 CHAMEK male 4 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 Hunted BALOU male 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 Predated SIMON male adult 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 Removed same year of release OTTO male 4 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 Predated PERU male infant 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 MARTIN male adult 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 Disappeared RAYO male infant 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 Table S2. Individual histories in Mark format for the 28 individu als considered in this study. First column shows the individual histories, second column correspond to adult males, third column to adult female, fourth column to young males and fth column to young females. “-1” indicates the individual was removed from the group. 1111111 0 1 0 0 ; 1111111 0 0 0 1 ; 1110000 0 -1 0 0 ; 10000 0 1 0 0 ; 11111 0 0 0 1 ; 1111 0 1 0 0 ; 1100 0 1 0 0 ; 1000 0 0 0 1 ; 1111 0 1 0 0 ; 1110 0 1 0 0 ; 1111 0 1 0 0 ; 111 0 0 0 1 ; 10 0 1 0 0 ; 10 0 1 0 0 ; 11 0 0 0 1 ; 11 0 0 0 1 ; 10 0 0 0 -1 ; 10 0 0 0 1 ; 10 0 0 0 -1 ; 10 0 -1 0 0 ; 1111111 0 0 1 0 ; 1111000 0 0 1 0 ; 1000000 0 0 1 0 ; 10000 -1 0 0 0 ; 10000 0 0 1 0 ; 11111 0 0 1 0 ; 10 1 0 0 0 ; 11 0 0 1 0 ;

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11 PROLONGED INTERSPECIFIC ASSOCIATION BETWEEN ATELES FUSCICEPS FUSCICEPS AND ALOUATTA PALLIATA AEQUATORIALIS ATELIDAE IN A FOREST FRAGMENT IN NORTH WESTERN ECUADOR Paola Moscoso Rosero 1,4 , Sam Shanee 2 , Santiago Burneo 3 , Nathalia Fuentes 4 , Felipe AlfonsoCorts 4 , Martn Obando 5 and Diego G. Tirira 5 1 Evolution Behaviour & Environment, School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton, United Kingdom, E-mail: < paola.moscoso.rosero@gmail.com> 2 Neotropical Primate Conservation, Manchester, United Kingdom 3 Museo de Zoologa, Escuela de Biologa, Ponticia Universidad Catlica del Ecuador, Quito, Ecuador 4 Fundacin Naturaleza y Arte, Proyecto Washu, Quito, Ecuador 5 Fundacin Mamferos y Conservacin, Quito, Ecuador Abstract Changes in the behavior of primates caused by habitat disturbance are important indicators of their survival ability in frag mented landscapes. In Ecuador, few studies have examined the eect of habitat fragmentation on primate behavior. We present data of a prolonged interspecic association between a brown-headed spider monkey ( Ateles fusciceps fusciceps ) living within a troop of Ecuadorian mantled howler monkeys ( Alouatta palliata aequatorialis ) in a protected forest fragment in northwestern Ecuador. We collected 274 hours of observations, at 10-minute intervals, on the A. f. fusciceps individual in both the wet and dry seasons. Data included the amount of time that the A. f. fusciceps individual spent associating with, and apart from, the A. p. aequatorialis troop . Our observations suggest a close relationship between the individuals of the two species, with similarities in their behavior and diets found during the study. Interspecic communication was observed frequently, with all A. p. aequatorialis individuals interacting directly with the A. f. fusciceps individual. e behavior of the A. f. fusciceps individual was similar to that found in studies of other Ateles spp. living in fragmented and disturbed habitats, but diered from that observed in other studies of the same species in continuous forest, suggesting adaptation to conditions in fragmented habitat and possibly to living in close proximity with the howler troop. Keywords: Primate behavior, habitat disturbance, symbiosis, adaptation. Resumen Cambios en el comportamiento de primates causados por la intervencin de hbitat son indicadores importantes de habi lidad de supervivencia en ecosistemas fragmentados. En Ecuador existen pocos estudios que examinen los cambios en el comportamiento de especies causados por la fragmentacin. Este estudio documenta la asociacin interespecca entre un mono araa de cabeza caf ( Ateles fusciceps fusciceps ) conviviendo con una tropa de monos aulladores de la costa ( Alouatta palliata aequatorialis ) dentro de un remanente de bosque protegido en el noroccidente del Ecuador. Colectamos 274 horas de muestras instantneas, registradas cada 10 minutos, de A. f. fusciceps durante las estaciones lluviosa y seca. El registro de datos incluy tiempo en el que A. f. fusciceps estaba asociado y separado de la tropa de A. p. aequatorialis . Los resultados sugieren que la relacin entre ambas especies es estrecha, con similitudes en los patrones de comportamiento y dieta en contrados a lo largo del estudio. Se observ con frecuencia una comunicacin interespecca, con todos los individuos de A. p. aequatorialis interactuando de cierta forma directamente con A. f. fusciceps individualmente. El comportamiento del individuo A. f. fusciceps fue similar a lo encontrado en otros estudios de Ateles spp. viviendo en hbitats fragmentados e inter venidos, pero diferente de lo observado en otros estudios de la misma especie en bosque continuo. Esto ltimo sugiere una adaptacin a las condiciones de fragmentacin de hbitat y posiblemente a la estrecha proximidad de la tropa de aulladores. Palabras clave: Comportamiento de primates; alteracin de hbitat; simbiosis; adaptacin . Introduction Habitat destruction has led to reductions and isolation of many primate populations and, as consequence, vari ous adaptations in behavioral and ecological responses in primate communities have occurred (Marsh et al ., 2013). is has included changes in dietary selection, population densities and group sizes, reproductive tness, stress levels and susceptibility to disease (Martnez-Mota et al ., 2007; Schwitzer et al ., 2011; Abondano and Link, 2012; Marsh et al ., 2013; Carretero-Pinzn et al ., 2016; Rondn et al ., 2017) and those better able to adapt are, probably, more likely to survive this habitat alteration, at least for the short term (Schwitzer et al ., 2011).

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12 e four species of primates that inhabit the coastal region of Ecuador are threatened by hunting, habitat loss and frag mentation (Rowe and Myers, 2016). e most threatened species, the brown-headed spider monkey ( Ateles fusciceps fusciceps ), is restricted to remaining areas of forest on Ecua dor’s Pacic coast. is species is listed as Critically Endan gered (Tirira et al ., 2017; IUCN, 2018a) and is considered one of the 25 most threatened primate species (Schwitzer et al ., 2017) due to a nearly 80 % reduction in its habi tat (Tirira et al ., 2017). Hunting is also a major problem for remnant populations of this species (IUCN, 2018a). Similarly, the Ecuadorian mantled howler monkey ( Alouat ta palliata aequatorialis ) is threatened due to population reduction from habitat loss and hunting (IUCN, 2018b) and is considered Vulnerable by the IUCN (2018b) and Endangered in the Red Book of the Mammals of Ecuador (Tirira, 2011). Despite these species’ sympatry, no infor mation on a close long-term relationship between them has been published to date. Inter-specic associations have been documented in various Neotropical primates (e.g. van Roosmalen, 1985; Pontes, 1997; de la Torre, 2000; Heymann and Buchanan-Smith, 2000; Deer, 2004; Lehman et al ., 2006; Shanee et al ., 2007; Haugaasen and Peres, 2009; Silva and Ferrari, 2009; Oliveira and Dietz, 2011; Shaer et al ., 2016). ese as sociations provide advantages such as increased access to resources and predator avoidance (Norconk, 1990; Ter borgh, 1990; de la Torre, 2000; Oliveira and Dietz, 2011). Some studies report low levels of interspecic interactions for Ateles spp. (van Roosmalen and Klein, 1988; Haugaas en and Peres, 2009), however, there are several published observations of inter-specic associations between spider monkeys and other sympatric primates (van Roosmalen, 1985; Deer, 2004; Shanee et al ., 2007; Blake et al ., 2010; Link et al ., 2011). Interspecic associations have also been reported between Alouatta spp. and other primates (Pontes, 1997; Lehman et al ., 2006; Haugaasen and Peres, 2009; Silva and Ferrari, 2009), including with spider monkeys (Cristbal-Azkarate et al ., 2015). We conducted a short study on the activity budgets, diet and inter-specic interactions of a solitary A. f. fusciceps liv ing with a group of A. p. aequatorialis in a forest fragment in Ecuador. e aim of this study was to describe the pos sible behavioral and ecological responses of both species to the intense anthropogenic disturbance in the area and their close interspecic association. Methods Study site e study was carried out in the Ashiringa Ecological Re serve, a private reserve in Pichincha province, Northwest ern Ecuador (00.9’’S, 78.4’’W). e reserve consists of approximately 107 hectares of remnant forest (~50 hectares of primary forest and ~57 hectares of second ary forest), and altitudes ranging from 500 to 700 meters. e reserve is surrounded by a matrix of orchards, pasture and artisanal sh farms. An unpaved road runs through the reserve (Fig. 1). Forests in the area are pre-montane evergreen Western Andes Cordillera forest (Sierra, 1999) with multiple veg etation strata, with both lowland and premontane forests (Guevara and Morales, 2013). Canopy height is 15 to 19 m with occasional emergent trees of up to 30 m with an average diameter at breast height of 405 cm (Moscoso, 2010). Weather is very humid sub-tropical with daytime temperatures between 17 and 26 C and annual rainfall of 3,000 mm, and 500 mm in the wettest month (Hijmans et al ., 2005). Topography in the area is characterized by steep hills which have contributed to the conservation of remnant forest areas. e principle threats to habitat in the area come from mining and human population growth with its associated expansion of the agricultural frontier leading to deforestation and isolation of remaining forest fragments (Centro de Investigaciones Sociales del Milenio, 2006; Vandegrift et al ., 2018). Figure 1. Map showing the location of the study area, Ashiringa Ecological Reserve, Pichincha Province, northwestern Ecuador.

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13 Field surveys Field work was carried out for four months in two periods: during the wet season (September to October 2008) and the dry season (June to July 2009). Focal animals were followed daily between 06:00 and 18:00 ( Brockelman and Ali, 1987). At the start of the study period the A. p. ae quatorialis troop consisted of four individuals: one adult male; one adult female with a dependent infant; and one juvenile female. A juvenile male joined the group during the last week of the study (July 2009). During the study period, we did not nd any con-specics of A. f. fusciceps in the surrounding area. Other groups of howler monkeys are found in adjacent fragments, however no interactions were observed with the A. f. fusciceps individual during the study period. We used a combination of focal animal sampling for ob servations of the A. f. fusciceps individual, and group scan sampling for observations of the A. p. aequatorialis group (Altmann, 1974), recording activity of each visible indi vidual in turn. We recorded activities every ten minutes using ve previously dened, mutually exclusive behavioral categories based on Martin and Batenson (2007): resting, feeding, social activities, travelling, and vocalization (Ap pendix 1). We considered associations to be any time when the A. f. fusciceps individual was with the howler group. Details of all inter-specic interactions between individu als of both species were recorded in ve categories: body contact, avoidance, aggression, play, and other. We identi ed food types consumed as: young leaves, mature leaves, unripe fruit, ripe fruit, owers and other (including buds, bark, nectar, bromeliads, ferns, and insects). Plant resourc es consumed by both species were collected and identied. We also recorded forest strata used by all individuals at 10 minute intervals. Data analysis We calculated activity budgets using the frequency of oc currence of each behavioral category. We selected a 10 minutes interval between scans, and all data were averaged to reduce pseudoreplication (Martin and Bateson, 2007). Similarly, only non-parametric statistics were used as sam ple sizes were small and data may not have been normally distributed. To estimate dietary preference, we calculated frequencies for consumption of each food type as well as frequencies of plant families and species consumed by A. f. fusciceps . We tested for dierences in activity budgets and dietary preferences using chi-square tests. To examine the relationship between the A. f. fusciceps individual and the A. p. aequatorialis troop we calculated frequencies for each type of interaction between each pair of individuals, also examining possible correlations in interactions between seasons. We also compared activity budgets from our study with those reported in the literature for Ateles spp. and Al ouatta spp. Results Activity budgets and association times We collected 274 hours of behavioral data over 41 days (23 full day follows and 18 partial follows). ese were split between 147.3 hours (21 days) and 126.6 hours (20 days) during the wet and dry seasons, respectively. ere were no dierences in seasonal activity budgets for each species (all x , p > 0.05). Signicant dierences in activity budgets were found between species in the wet season ( x = 25.259, df = 4, p < 0.001), dry season ( x = 9.634, df = 4, p = 0.047) (Fig. 2). Post-hoc tests (Bonferroni), with Alpha signi cance set to 0.05 (adjusted signicance for 10 compari sons = 0.005), showed that these dierences were in the frequencies of resting and locomoting. Figure 2. Comparative activity budgets between the wet and dry seasons for Ateles fusciceps fusciceps and Alouatta palliata aequato rialis at Ashiringa Ecological Reserve, Pichincha Province, north western Ecuador. Comparisons of the activity budget for A. f. fusciceps from this study showed large dierences with those found for Ateles spp. in other studies (Table 1).

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14 Table 1. Comparison of activity budgets of Ateles spp. and Alouatta spp. from this and other studies. Species Rest Social Feed Travel Vocalization Other Source Ateles f. fusciceps 46 4 17 33 1 <1 is study At. f. fusciceps 10 23* 37 30 Gavilnez-Endara (2006) At. f. fusciceps 8 17 58 17 Moscoso (2010) At. f. fusciceps 20 10 20 34 14 Moscoso (2010) At. f. fusciceps 10 80 10 Moscoso (2010) At. f. fusciceps 25 4 36 30 4* Fuentes et al. 2018 Ateles belzebuth 61 22 10 7*** Klein and Klein (1977) At. belzebuth 45 18 36 1*** Nunes (1995) At. belzebuth 58 17 25 17*** Suarez (2006) Ateles. chamek 45 29 26 12*** Symington (1988) At. chamek 46 19 30 6*** Wallace (2001) Ateles georoyi (Continuous forest average)** 34 40 15 11 Chavez et al. (2011) At. georoyi (Fragmented forest average)** 34 48 9 10 Chavez et al. (2011) At. georoyi 24 34 33 10*** Chapman et al . (1989) Alouatta p. aequatorialis 50 5 18 25 2 <1 is study Al. p. aequatorialis 14 39* 23 19 * Gavilnez-Endara (2006) Alouatta belzebul 59 20 18 3*** Pinto (2002) Al. belzebul 56 8 19 17*** Bonvicino (1989) Alouatta caraya. 62 16 18 5*** Bicca-Marques (1993) Alouatta guariba 72 17 11 0*** Mendes (1989) Al. guariba 58 19 19 5*** De Marques (1995) Al. guariba 64 19 13 4*** Chiarello (1993) Alouatta palliata 66 16 10 8*** Milton (1980) Al. palliata 80 17 2 1*** Estrada et al (1999) Al. palliata 73 18 8 2*** Teaford and Glander (1996) Al. palliata 56 25 14 6*** Stoner (1996) Al. palliata 57 14 27 2*** Williams-Guillen (2003) Al. p. aequatorialis 66 8* 16 10 Milton (1980) Alouatta pigra 62 24 10 4*** Silver et al (1998) Al. pigra 83 10 4 3 Pozo-Montuy et al . (2013) Alouatta seniculus 79 13 6 3*** Gaulin and Gaulin (1982) Al. seniculus 67 22 11 Neves and Rylands (1991) Al. seniculus 63 22 10 Palma et al . (2011) =* Including vocalizations, ** Author calculation, *** includes social, In Di Fiore et al. (2011). Inter-specic interactions Inter-specic associations between the species accounted for 218.2 observation hours (80 %). Time spent in asso ciation between seasons was very similar, 83 % and 79 % during the wet and dry seasons, respectively. Over half of associations, 56 %, lasted the full follow, with the remain ing days’ associations being partial (34 %) or absent (10 %). e 82 direct interspecic interactions observed were di vided into ve categories: body contact (42 %), avoiding (22 %), aggression (7 %), play (17 %) and other (12 %). Individual inter-specic interactions between the A. f. fusciceps and A. p. aequatorialis group members showed dierences between individuals. e juvenile female had the most inter-specic interactions (41 %), followed by

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15 Figure 3. Percentage of dietary components between season for Ateles fusciceps fusciceps and Alouatta palliata aequatorialis . Discussion In this study both species had similar activity budgets, which may be surprising due to the intrinsic dierences in the species’ biology and ecology (Di Fiore et al ., 2011). Primates of the genus Ateles are physiologically adapted to travel large distances in a short time which has a large impact on their dietary requirements (Strier, 1992). On the other hand, Alouatta spp. are known for their sedentary behaviors and lower energetic requirements (Strier, 1992). However, studies on Ateles spp. in fragmented and dis turbed habitats (i.e., under sub-optimal conditions), have shown that they can adapt their behavior and diet to better cope with available resources (Abondano and Link, 2012; Schaner et al ., 2012). e only signicant dierences observed between the spe cies’ activity budgets, was, as expected, greater instances of travelling and lower instances of resting by the A. f. fusciceps individual. Spider monkeys tend to spend a large portion of their time travelling, much higher than howler monkeys (see Table 2). On the other hand, similar changes in activ ity budgets have been observed in some species of Ateles living in fragmented habitat. Schaner et al . (2012) found that a group of A. georoyi yucatanensis substantially altered their activities in the aftermath of two hurricanes, reduc ing time spent travelling, whilst increasing time spent feed ing on leaves, compared to prior to the hurricanes. Other studies have shown similar patterns in the behavior of A. georoyi and A. hybridus in fragmented habitats (Abondano and Link, 2012; Chaves et al ., 2011). For example, Chavez et al . (2011) reported that A. georoyi living in fragmented forests spent less time traveling and more time feeding than groups in continuous forest (Table 1). Another interesting observation was the high percentage of resting seen in the A. f. fusciceps individual (Fig. 2), which again could be an adaptive behavior to living in sub-opti mal habitat (Abondano and Link, 2012; Schaner et al ., the adult male (21 %), juvenile male (14 %), adult female (13 %) and infant (10 %). Table 2 presents qualitative de tails of the interaction types observed. We also observed multi-member interactions, and vocal communication be tween the howler group and the A. f. fusciceps individual (group members responding to calls when ripe fruits were encountered). On occasion the A. p. aequatorialis group members would become agitated and vocally active when the A. f. fusciceps individual would approach the juvenile female, especially at the end of the dry season. Table 2. Qualitative details of inter-specic interactions between the A. f. fusciceps individual and A. p. aequatorialis group members. A. palliata group member Frequency of interaction (%) Description Juvenile female 41 Body contact, involving hugging, attempted mounting, pulling of tails and other body parts (by the A. fusciceps ), often received with evasion or as play. Adult male 21 Evasion, as moving away when the A. fusciceps came close, aggression and exploration of new areas away from the group. Juvenile male 14 Aggression, evasion and body contact Adult female 13 Body contact on few occasions received with evasion Infant 10 Play Diet We observed 48 dierent plant species from 19 families consumed by the A. f. fusciceps individual during the study period (Appendix 2). Species from three families made up over 50 % of plant resources consumed: Moraceae (24 %), Fabaceae (17 %) and Cecropiaceae (12 %). Ripe fruit was the most commonly consumed food type by the A. f. fusciceps individual during the wet season (43 %), followed by immature leaves (41 %). During the dry sea son this changed to a higher consumption of immature leaves (62 %) and lower consumption of immature fruits (15 %); these dierences were found to be signicant ( x 2 47.21, df = 5, p < 0.001). For A. p. aequatorialis immature leaves were the most commonly consumed food type dur ing the wet season (52 %), followed by ripe fruit (34 %). During the dry season, there was a higher consumption of immature leaves (73 %) and lower of fruits (ripe fruit 9 % and immature fruit 8 %) these dierences were also signicant ( x 2 29.62, df = 5, p < 0.001) (Fig. 3).

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16 2012), although comparative resting times in Ateles geof froyi groups living in fragmented and continuous forest did not show such marked patterns (Chaves et al., 2011 and table 1). Similarly, Abondano and Link (2012) found that A. hybridus living in heavily fragmented habitat in Colom bia spent more time resting than either feeding or travel ling (~40 % resting, and ~25 % in feeding and travelling, respectively). A. f. fusciceps individual in our study and those from other studies of the same species (Gavilanez-Endara, 2006; Mos coso, 2010; Fuentes et al ., 2018) show large dierences in activity budgets (Table 1), especially in resting times, which are generally much lower in A. f. fusciceps (Gavilanez-Enda ra, 2006; Moscoso, 2010; Fuentes et al ., 2018). is may have had a knock-on eect, including lower resource con sumption, as energetic requirements are lower with lower activity levels (van Roosmalen, 1985; Symington, 1988; Nunes, 1998; Surez, 2006), and, the lower levels of travel similarly related to less need to nd food, or vice-versa . e inter-specic relationship observed is almost per manent and should not be considered as a casual asso ciation. e reason for the association could be that, as social animals (Strier, 2015), the A. f. fusciceps individual associated with the group as he could nd no conspecif ics in the area. Several well documented interspecic as sociations in Neotropical primates exist; in the Ecuadorian Amazon, Sapajus macrocephalus and Saimiri cassiquiarensis have a symbiotic relationship, where S. cassiquiarensis takes advantage of the ability of S. macrocephalus to access other wise unattainable resources whilst S. macrocephalus gains an early warning system against predation (de la Torre, 2000). ere are also reports of multi-specic relationships, for ex ample between Callitrichids in the Bolivian, Brazilian and Peruvian Amazon where species travel together all taking advantage of the increased defensive benet and foraging opportunities (Heymann and Buchanan-Smith, 2000). e advantages of Ateles spp. ecological cognitive abilities (Di Fiore and Suarez, 2007), combined with faster reaction times, when compared to those of Alouatta spp. could be useful in group defense. ere have also been a handful of reports of inter-specic relationships with species of the genus Ateles . Van Roos malen (1985) reported the formation of temporal subgroups with Chiropotes satanas . Most interestingly for this study, Deer (2004) mentions a female A. belzebuth living within a troop of A. seniculus in Colombia, and Shanee et al. (2007) reported a solitary A. belzebuth associating with a troop of Lagothrix avicauda in Peru. at same individual was seen associating with the same L. avicauda troop on several subsequent occasions (S. Shanee, pers. obs.), the nearest known population of A. belzebuth is found ~10 km to the Northwest. Possibly a dispersing animal got lost or failed to be accepted into a new group and now associates with the nearest acceptable alternative, although in this case it is not a permanent association (S. Shanee, pers. obs.). Even so, observations of interspecic associations, and par ticularly long-term associations, with Ateles spp. are scarce, especially in competitive situations (van Roosmalen and Klein, 1988). e types of interactions observed between the A. f. fusciceps individual and each member of the howler group was dierent. ere was a high level of interaction with the juvenile female, the only reproductively available member of the group when she reached the reproductive age. Conversely, interactions observed with the group’s males were more of a solely cooperative nature, commonly observed intra-specically in groups of both Alouatta spp. and Ateles spp. (Di Fiore et al ., 2011). Dietary preferences observed in the A. f. fusciceps individual were similar to those reported for some other Ateles spp. (van Roosmalen and Klein, 1988; Surez, 2006). Although the choice of items diered from previous studies on this species (Gavilnez-Endara, 2006; Estvez-Noboa, 2009; Tirira, 2011). e low consumption of ripe fruits by the A. f. fusciceps individual was initially surprising, as was the high consumption of young leaves in a predominantly fru givorous species. However, this kind of adaptation has been seen in both A. hybridus and A. georoyi in fragmented or heavily disturbed areas (Chaves et al ., 2011; Abondano and Link, 2012; Schaner et al ., 2012; De Luna et al ., 2017), with both species consuming a much higher percentage of leaves then expected from previous studies of Ateles spp. Although diets were similar between the two species there was separation in food resource consumption, especially during the wet season, which might have reduced inter specic competition and facilitated the acceptance of the A. f. fusciceps by the howler troop. Dietary separation was noted by Deer (2004) as a possible mechanism to avoid conict between sympatric populations of A. belzebuth and Lagothrix lagothricha in the southern Colombian Amazon. e dierences found in the diets of both species between seasons will probably be a result of dierences in resource availability (van Shaik et al ., 1993), with both species con suming a wide variety of food types. e comparatively high consumption of fruits by the A. p. aequatorialis group could result from their availability (Milton, 1981; Janson and Chapman, 1999) and possibly, from the absence of other large bodied arboreal frugivorous in the Ashiringa Reserve (Jos Macas, pers. comm.). e high consump tion of leaves by the A. f. fusciceps individual is probably an adaptive behavior to survive in this highly fragmented area (Abondano and Link, 2012; Schaner et al ., 2012; De Luna et al ., 2017), where higher quality resources are scarce, especially during the dry season. An alternative, or at least complementary hypothesis for the similarities we found between the species’ behaviour and diets in this study, stems from the fact that similar species living under the same ecological conditions and environmental pressures can develop similar behavioural and ecological tendencies, even more so than two sepa rate populations of the same species living under dierent

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17 conditions (Strier, 2015). e similarity in activity budgets between the species could be an adaptation of the A. f. fus ciceps’ activity rhythms to living with the A. p. aequatorialis group, as well as to fragmentation. e observed associa tion could represent a symbiotic relationship, rather than more tolerance (or even diculty on the part of the A. p aequatorialis group in ‘escaping’ the presence of the A. f. fusciceps individual), in that both benet from the relation ship (Strier, 2015). e A. f. fusciceps individual benets from incorporation into a group, winning greater protec tion and social contact (Chance, 1955). Whereas, the A. p. aequatorialis group benets through increased group size for vigilance and in locating resources. e association also appears to be stable, with the A. f. fusciceps individual re lating socially with all the howler group members. It is likely that the philopatric dispersal system of Alouatta spp. (Di Fiore et al ., 2011) facilitated the acceptance/tolerance of the A. f. fusciceps individual and/or that the individual was adopted by the howler troop as an infant, which has previously been reported by Strier (2015). However, this interpretation would need much more investigation before being accepted. is study shows that forest fragmentation and popula tion reductions can lead to various adaptations in behav ioral and ecological responses in primates (Schwitzer et al ., 2011). It is possible that observations such as ours will become more common in the future as habitats are reduced and groups/individuals become increasingly isolated from populations of conspecics. Acknowledgments We thank the Iniciativa de Especies Amenazadas Fernando Ortiz Crespo of the Programa de Becas de Investigacin para la Conservacin (PBIC), led by Fundacin EcoCien cia and Conservation International for their nancial support to this project. Rodrigo Arcos, Tjitte de Vries and Omar Torres-Carvajal for their helpful suggestions. Juan F. Freile for helping during the eldwork. e Her bario Nacional, especially Miguel ngel Chinchero, for the identications of botanical records. And Macas fam ily, landowners of Ashiringa Ecological Reserve, for their help and hospitality. References Abondano, L. and Link, A. 2012. e social behavior of brown spider monkeys ( Ateles hybridus ) in a fragmented forest in Colombia. Int. J. Primatol 33: 1-15. Altmann, J. 1974. Observational study of behavior: Sam pling methods. Behaviour 49: 227. Blake, J. G., Guerra, J., Mosquera, D., Torres, R., Loiselle, B. A. and Romo, D. 2010. Use of Mineral Licks by White-Bellied Spider Monkeys ( Ateles belzebuth ) and Red Howler Monkeys ( Alouatta seniculus ) in Eastern Ecuador. Int. J. Primatol 31: 471-483. Brockelman, W. Y. and Ali, R. 1987. Methods of surveying and sampling forest primate populations. In: Primate Con servation in the Tropical Rain Forest , C. W. Marsh and R. A. Mittermeier (eds.), pp.23. Alan R. Liss, New York. Carretero-Pinzn, X., Deer, T. R., McAlpine, C. A. and Rhodes, J. R. 2016. What do we know about the eect of patch size on primate species across life history traits? Biodiv. Cons. 25: 37-66. Centro de Investigaciones Sociales del Milenio. 2006. Ob jetivos de desarrollo del Milenio. Estado de situacin 2006. Provincia de Pichincha, Quito. Chance, M. R. A. 1955. e Sociability of Monkeys. Man 55: 162. Chaves, ”. M., Stoner, K. E. and Arroyo-Rodrguez, V. 2011. Seasonal dierences in activity patterns of Georoyis Spider Monkeys ( Ateles georoyi ) living in continuous and fragmented forests in Southern Mexico. Int. J. Primatol. 32: 960-973. Cristbal-Azkarate, J., Urbani, B. and Asensio, N. 2015. Interactions of Howler monkeys with other vertebrates: A review. In: Howler monkeys: Behavior, ecology, and con servation , M. M. Kowalewski, P. A. Garber, L. CortsOrtiz, B. Urbani and D. Youlatos (eds). pp.141-164. Springer, New York. De la Torre, S. 2000. Primates de la Amazona del Ecuador. Sociedad para la Investigacin y Monitoreo de la Biodi versidad, Quito. De Luna, A., Link, A., Montes, A., Alfonso, F., Mendieta, L. Di Fiore, A. 2017. Increased folivory in brown spider monkeys Ateles hybridus living in a fragmented forest in Colombia. Endangered Species Res . 32: 123. Deer, T. R. 2004. Primates of Colombia . Serie de Guas Tropicales de Campo 4 Conservation International. Bogot. Di Fiore, A. and Surez, S. A. 2007. Route-based travel and shared routes in sympatric spider and woolly mon keys: cognitive and evolutionary implications. Anim. Cogn. 10: 317. Di Fiore, A. F., Link, A. and Campbell, C. J. 2011. e Atelines: behavior and socioecological diversity in a New World monkey. In: Primates in Perspective . C. J. Camp bell, A. Fuentes, K. C. Mackinnon, R. M. Stumpf, and S. K. Bearder (eds.), pp.156. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK. Estvez-Noboa, M. 2009. Estudio poblacional y uso de hbi tat de Alouatta palliata , Ateles fusciceps y Cebus capucinus en el Bosque Protector Los Cedros, provincia de Imbabura. Bachelor thesis, Universidad Central del Ecuador, Quito. Fuentes, N., Alfonso-Cortes, F., Duch-Latorre, I., Fonseca, K., Cervera, L., Macas, Q., Loor, A., Kincez, K., Ur bina, S. 2018. Patrn de actividad, uso de estrato y dieta del mono araa de cabeza caf ( Ateles fusciceps ) en frag mentos de bosque del Cantn Flavio Alfaro, Provincia de Manab. 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18 nublado del noroccidente Ecuatoriano. Bachelor thesis, Ponticia Universidad Catlica del Ecuador, Quito. Guevara, J. and Morales, C. 2013. BsPn01 Bosque siem preverde piemontano de cordillera Occidental de los An des. In: Sistema de clasicacin de los ecosistemas del Ec uador continental , MAE (ed.), pp.83. Ministerio del Ambiente del Ecuador, Quito. Haugaasen, T. and Peres, C. A. 2009. Interspecic primate associations in Amazonian ooded and unooded forests. Primates 50: 239. Heymann, E. W. and Buchanan-Smith, H. M. 2000. e behavioural ecology of mixed-species troops of Callitrich ine primates. Bio. Rev. 75: 169. Hijmans, R. J., Cameron, S. E., Parra, J. L., Jones, P. G. and Jarvis, A. 2005. Very high-resolution interpolated climate surfaces for global land areas. Int. J. Climatol. 25: 1965. IUCN. 2018a. Ateles fusciceps . e IUCN Redlist of reatened Species 2008. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/ IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T135446A4129010.en. Ac cessed 21 May 2018. IUCN. 2018b. 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K., Chapman, C. A., Arroyo-Rodrguez, V., Cobden, A. K., Dunn, J. C., Gabriel, D., Ghai, R., Nij man, V., Reyna-Hurtado, R., Serio-Silva, J. C. and Was serman, M. D., 2013. Primates in fragments 10 years later: once and future goals. In: Primates in fragments (editors) (eds.), pp.505. Springer, New York. Martin, P. and Bateson, P. 2007. Measuring behaviour: An introductory guide. Cambridge University Press, United Kingdom. Milton, K. 1981. Food choice and digestive strategies of two sympatric primate species. r Am. Nat. 117: 496. Moscoso, P. 2010. Estado poblacional del mono araa de cabeza caf ( Ateles fusciceps ) en el noroccidente del Ecua dor, con notas ecolgicas de una relacin interespecca con Alouatta palliata . Bachelor thesis, Ponticia Univer sidad Catlica del Ecuador, Quito. Neves, A. M. S. and Rylands, A. B. 1991. Diet of a group of howling monkeys, Alouatta seniculus , in an isolated forest patch in Central Amazonia. Acta Primatologica 3: 263. Norconk, M. A. 1990. Introductory remarks: Ecological and behavioral correlates of polyspecic primate troops. Am. J. Primatol. 21: 81. Nunes, A. 1998. Diet and feeding ecology of Ateles bel zebuth belzebuth at Marac Ecological Station, Roraima, Brazil. Folia. Primatol. 69: 61. Oliveira, L. C. and Dietz, J. M. 2011. Predation risk and the interspecic association of two Brazilian Atlantic for est primates in Cabruca agroforest. Am. J. Primatol . 73: 852. Palma, A. C., Vlez, A., Gmez-Posada, C., Lpez, H., Zrate, D. A. and Stevenson, P. R. 2011. Use of space, activity patterns, and foraging behavior of red howler monkeys ( Alouatta seniculus ) in an Andean forest frag ment in Colombia. Am. J. Primatol. 73: 1062. Pontes, A. R. M. 1997. Habitat partitioning among pri mates in Marac Island, Roraima, Northern Brazilian Amazonia. Int. J. Primatol. 18: 131. Pozo-Montuy, G., Serio-Silva, J.C., Chapman, C.A. and Bonilla-Snchez, Y.M. 2013. Resource Use in a Land scape Matrix by an Arboreal Primate: Evidence of Sup plementation in Black howlers ( Alouatta pigra ). Int. J. Primatol. 34: 714. Rondn, S., Ortiz, M., Len, C., Galvis, N., Link, A. and Gonzlez, C. 2017. Seasonality, richness and prevalence of intestinal parasites of three Neotropical primates ( Al ouatta seniculus, Ateles hybridus and Cebus versicolor ) in a fragmented forest in Colombia. Int. J. Parasitol Parasites Wildl. 6: 202. Rowe, N. and Myers, M. 2016. All the worlds primates . Po gonias Press. Providence, Pas. Schaner, C. M., Rebecchini, L., Ramos-Fernandez, G., Vick, L. G. and Aureli, F. 2012. Spider Monkeys ( Ateles georoyi yucatenensis ) Cope with the Negative Conse quences of Hurricanes rough Changes in Diet, Activ ity Budget, and Fission–Fusion Dynamics. Int. J. Prima tol. 33: 922. Schwitzer, C., Glatt L, Nekaris, K. A. I. and Ganzhorn J. U. 2011. Responses of animals to habitat alteration: an over view focussing on primates. End. Species Res. 14: 31. Schwitzer, C., Mittermeier, R. A., Rylands, A. B., Chiozza, A. B., Williamson, E. A., Mace, E. J., Wallis, J. and Cot ton, A. 2017. Primates in Peril: e World’s 25 Most En dangered Primates 2014-2016. IUCN/SSC Primate Spe cialist Group, International Primatological Society (IPS), and Conservation International, Arlington, VA. Shaer, C. A., Barnett, A. A., Gregory, T., De Melo, F., Moreira, L., Alvim, T. H., Moura, V. S., Fil, A., Car doso, T., PortfCarvalho, M. and Santos, R. R. D., 2016. Mixedfspecies associations in cuxis (genus Chiropotes ). Am. J. Primatol. 78: 583. Shanee, S., Shanee, N. and Maldonado, A. M. 2007. Inter specic association between Oreonax and Ateles , Amazo nas, Peru. Neotrop. Primates 14: 34.

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19 Sierra, R. 1999. Propuesta preliminar de un Sistema de cla sicacin de vegetacin para el Ecuador continental . Quito: INEFAN/GEF-BIRF and EcoCiencia, Quito. Silva, S. S. B and Ferrari, S. F. 2009. Behavior patterns of southern Bearded Sakis ( Chiropotes satanas ) in the frag mented landscape of Eastern Brazilian Amazonia. Am. J. Primatol. 71: 1. Strier, K. B. 1992. Atelinae adaptations: Behavioral strat egies and ecological constraints. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 88: 515. Strier, K. B. 2015. Primate Behavioral Ecology . Routledge, New York. Surez, S. A. 2006. Diet and travel costs for spider mon keys in a nonseasonal, hyperdiverse environment. Int. J. Primatol. 27: 411. Symington, M. M. 1988. Demography, ranging patterns, and activity budgets of black spider monkeys ( Ateles paniscus chamek ) in the Manu National Park, Peru. Am. J. Primatol. 15: 45. Terborgh, J. 1990. Mixed ocks and polyspecic associa tions: Costs and benets of mixed groups to birds and monkeys. Am. J. Primatol. 21: 87. Tirira, D. G. (ed.). 2011. Libro Rojo de los mamferos del Ec uador. 2nd edition. Fundacin Mamferos y Conservacin, Ponticia Universidad Catlica del Ecuador y Ministerio del Ambiente del Ecuador. Publicacin Especial . 8. Quito. Tirira, D. G., Mndez-Carvajal, P. G., and Morales-Jim nez, A. L. 2017. Brown-Headed Spider Monkey Ateles fusciceps Gray, 1866. In: Primates in Peril: e World’s 25 Most Endangered Primates 2016 . C. Schwitzer, R. A. Mittermeier, A. B. Rylands, F. Chiozza, E. A. William son, E. J. Mace, J. Wallis and A. Cotton (eds.), pp.40– 43. IUCN SSC Primate Specialist Group, International Primatological Society, Conservation International, and Bristol Zoological Society, Arlington, VA. Vandegrift, R., omas, D., Bitty, A.R., and Levy, M. 2018. Alcance de las concesiones mineras recientes en Ecua dor . Unpublished report. Rainforest Information Center, Nimbin, New South Wales, Australia. van Roosmalen, M. G. 1985. Habitat preferences, diet, feeding strategy and social organization of the Black Spi der Monkey [ Ateles paniscus paniscus Linnaeus, 1758] in Surinam. Acta Amaz. 15: 7. van Roosmalen, M. G. and Klein, L. 1988. e spi der monkeys, genus Ateles . In: Ecology and Behavior of Neotropical Primate s, Vol. 2. R. A. Mittermeier, A. B. Ry lands, A. Coimbra-Filho, and G. A. B. da Fonseca (eds.), pp.455. World Wildlife Fund, Washington, D.C. van Shaik, C. P., Terborgh, J. W. and Wright, S. J. 1993. e phylogeny of tropical forests: adaptive signicance and consequences for primary consumers. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 24: 353. Appendices Appendix 1. Description of behavioral denitions for Ateles fusciceps fusciceps and Alouatta palliata aequatorialis at Ashiringa Ecological Reserve, Pichincha Province, northwestern Ecuador. Behavioral category Behavioral sub-category Denition Resting To be inactive in either a standing, sitting or lying position (either alone or in a group) including auto-grooming. Feeding Feeding To handle, process or consume any food item. Foraging To be actively and engaged in searching for food items as the predominant behavior. Locomotion To purposefully change location, either within or between trees, or further. is is exclusive of incidental movement whilst foraging or engaged in another behavior within the same tree. Vocalization To be primarily active in calling, exclusive of vocalizations during play, aggressive or sexual encounters. Social activities Play To be actively engaged in repetitive, exaggerated and disjointed, solitary or social behavior with no observable goal (exclusive of all other active behaviors). Sexual To be engaged in copulation or related behaviors. Allo-grooming To be primarily engaged in non-aggressive physical contact with another individual (either grooming or being groomed by another individual or individuals, exclusive of sexual contact). Aggression/evasion To attack, provoke or show fear towards a conspecic from within the same group or with another group (including vocalizations, branch shacking, mooning and physical contact). Other Watching observer. Out of sight.

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20 Family Scientic name Item Apocynaceae Aspidosperma spruceanum Young leaves Apocynaceae Forsteronia myriantha Young leaves Bromeliaceae Bromelia spp. Young leaves Boraginaceae Cordia hebeclada Flowers Boraginaceae Cordia eriostigma fruits Cardiopteridaceae Dendrobangia boliviana Mature fruits Cecropiaceae Cecropia garciae Hearts Cecropiaceae Coussapoa herthae fruits Cecropiaceae Coussapoa contorta Mature leaves Cecropiaceae Coussapoa spp. Fruits Cecropiaceae Pourouma spp. Leaves Ericaceae Macleania pentaptera Flowers Euphorbiaceae Tetrorchidium macrophyllum Mature fruits Fabaceae Dioclea spp . Young leaves Fabaceae Pterocarpus ocinalis Young leaves Fabaceae Abarema barbouriana Leaves Fabaceae Inga acuminata Fruits Fabaceae Inga pezizifera Leaves Fabaceae Inga lallensis Leaves/mature fruits Fabaceae Inga nobilis Leaves Fabaceae Inga silanchensis Fruits Fabaceae Inga oerstediana Fruits/leaves Fabaceae Dussia lehmannii Mature fruits Family Scientic name Item Meliaceae Carapa guianensis Bark Meliaceae Guarea kunthiana Mature fruits Moraceae Castilla spp. Fruits Moraceae Sorocea jaramilloi Mature fruits Moraceae Ficus trigona Leaves Moraceae Ficus spp. Young leaves Moraceae Ficus tonduzii Leaves Moraceae Ficus maxima Young leaves Moraceae Ficus rieberiana Leaves Moraceae Ficus cuatrecasasiana Young leaves Moraceae Naucleopsis naga Leaves Moraceae Maquira guianensis Young leaves Moraceae Ficus cuatrecasasiana Leaves Moraceae Ficus carchiana Young leaves/hearts Moraceae Brosimum utile Leaves/mature fruits Myristicaceae Virola reidii Mature fruits Myrtaceae Myrcia fallax Leaves/mature fruits Myrtaceae Psidium spp. Mature fruits Rubiaceae Guettarda ochreata Mature fruits Rubiaceae Guettarda hirsuta Mature fruits Sapindaceae Paullinia capreolata Leaves Sapindaceae Billia rosea Mature fruits Sapotaceae Pouteria capacifolia Young leaves/fruits Solanaceae Solanum spp . Fruits Violaceae Gloeospermum grandifolium Mature fruits/leaves Appendix 2. List of plants consumed by A. f. fusciceps at Ashiringa Ecological Reserve, Pichincha Province, northwestern Ecuador.

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21 DEMOGRAPHY, HABITAT USE AND ACTIVITY BUDGET OF A WILD GROUP OF BLACK-FACED BLACK SPIDER MONKEYS ( ATELES CHAMEK ) IN LAS PIEDRAS, SOUTH-EASTERN PER Liselot Roos Lange 1, 2 and Nicola Marie Robson 3 1 Association for Research and Conservation in the Amazon (ARCAmazon), Jr. Billinghurst 433, Puerto Maldonado, Madre de Dios, Peru. E-mail 2 Junglekeepers Peru, Jr. Junin 17C-18, Puerto Maldonado, Madre de Dios, Peru. 3 Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Stag Hill, Guildford GU2 7XH, United Kingdom. E-mail Abstract Spider monkeys are one of the main seed-dispersal agents in the Amazonian ecosystem and therefore help regenerate the rainforest. e black-faced black spider monkey ( Ateles chamek) is internationally recognized as Endangered, and its range is limited to Peru, Bolivia and Brazil. Spider monkeys are a dicult genus to study and little is known about their popula tions in the wild. Here we present the results of a study on demography, habitat use, activity budget and preliminary notes on ranging pattern and diet of a wild group of A. chamek studied in a oodplain forest in south-eastern Peru. e group (in total eight to nine individuals) had a home range of approximately 1.6 km 2 (160 hectares) with a daily path length of approximately 1,200 m. e group was encountered at canopy levels above 20 m in height 75.2% of the time and rarely descended to lower forest levels. ere was a weak but signicant positive correlation between the number of encounters with individuals of the study group and the number of feeding trees in an area (R 2 = 0.38, N = 93, P > 0.001). e majority of their diet consisted of fruits, followed by leaves. Resting accounted for 41.9% of their activity budget, with foraging accounting for 30% and traveling 23.8%. Most ndings of this study are consistent with other studies on the species, but we found that the group size in our study was unusually small. However, this did not seem to have an inuence on home range size or activity budget. Keywords: spider monkey, Ateles , demography, home range, activity budget, habitat use, ranging pattern, diet. Resumen Los monos araa son uno de los principales agentes de dispersin de semillas en el ecosistema amaznico y por lo tanto ayudan a regenerar la selva. El mono araa negro ( Ateles chamek ) est reconocido internacionalmente como En Peligro, y su rea de distribucin se limita a Per, Bolivia y Brasil. Los monos araa son un gnero difcil de estudiar y se sabe poco sobre sus poblaciones en estado silvestre. Aqu se presentan los resultados de un estudio sobre demografa, uso del hbitat, presupuesto de actividades y notas preliminares sobre la pauta de distribucin y la dieta de un grupo silvestre de A . chamek estudiado en un bosque de llanura inundable en el sudeste del Per. El grupo (en total, ocho o nueve individuos) tena un rea de distribucin de aproximadamente 1.6 km 2 (160 hectreas) con una longitud de recorrido diario de aproximadamente 1,200 m. El grupo se encontr en niveles de copas de ms de 20 m de altura el 75,2 % del tiempo y rara vez descendi a niveles inferiores del bosque. Hubo una correlacin positiva, dbil pero signicativa, entre el nmero de encuentros con los individuos del grupo de estudio y el nmero de rboles en que se alimentan en una zona (R 2 = 0,38, N = 93, P > 0,001). La mayora de su dieta consisti en frutos, seguidos de hojas. El descanso represent el 41,9% de su presupuesto de actividades, la bsqueda de alimento el 30% y los viajes el 23,8%. La mayora de los hallazgos de este estudio son consistentes con otros estudios sobre la especie, pero encontramos que el tamao del grupo en nuestro estudio era inusualmente pequeo. Sin embargo, esto no pareci tener inuencia en el tamao del rea de distribucin o en el presupuesto de actividades. Palabras clave: mono araa, Ateles , demografa, rango de hogar, presupuesto de actividad, uso de hbitat, patrn de reco rrido, dieta. Introduction Spider monkeys (genus Ateles, Fig. 1) represent some of the most charismatic and ecologically-important primates found in the neotropical rainforest. e genus Ateles con sists of seven species (following Groves, 2001; Morales-Ji mnez et al ., 2015) which occur in tropical forests ran ging from Mexico to Bolivia (Collins, 2008). However, Ateles are under serious threat from both habitat loss and poaching. Little is known about the demography and behavior of distinct populations, as Ateles are a particular ly hard genus to study due to their preference for higher canopy levels. Ateles have evolved distinct morphological characteristics which allow them to thrive in the highest level of the forest canopy (Campbell et al. , 2005; Rosen berger et al. , 2008; Hooper, 2014). Many aspects of their

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22 physiology are distinct from other primates and are spe cialized for movements such as below-branch suspension and brachiation, rather than leaping and quadrupedal tra vel (Fontaine, 1990; Rosenberger et al. , 2008; Lindshield and Rodrigues, 2009). For instance, skeletal modica tions to the wrist and elbow, and the absence or reduction of the thumb, all assist Ateles in these suspensory activities which are essential for life in the canopy (Rosenberger et al. , 2008; Lindshield and Rodrigues, 2009). In addition to specialized forelimbs, Ateles also possess a prehensi le tail that can support the animal’s entire body weight (Youlatos, 2008). visiting clay licks, eating soil or decaying wood, and during social conicts (Campbell et al. , 2005). Ateles exhibit a larger home range than other primates in the same habitat due to the distribution of fruit patches (Takahashi, 2008; Deer, 2010). Home ranges of Ateles have been recorded between 32 and 900 ha with daily path lengths between 500 and 5,600 m (McFarland Symington, 1988a; Wallace, 2006, 2008; Spehar, Di Fiore and Link, 2010; Gonzlez-Zamora et al. , 2012, 2015; Velzquez-Vz quez et al. , 2015). e activity budget of Ateles is often described using four mutually exclusive categories: resting, foraging, traveling, and other (see Table 1) (McFarland Symington, 1988a; Wallace, 2001). On average, social behaviors account for less than ve percent of Ateles activity budgets (Slater, Scha ner and Aureli, 2007, 2009), which is less than for most primates. e largest portion of Ateles daily activity budget (nearly half) consists of resting (White, 1986; McFarland Symington, 1988a; Nunes, 1995; Wallace, 2001). Trave ling accounts for between 14.8 and 32.6% of the activity budget, and foraging between 18 and 50.5% (Chapman, Chapman and McLaughlin, 1989; Wallace, 2006). Time spent resting and traveling is likely inuenced by levels of fruit abundance and distribution. Ateles feed 70 to 90% of the time on large-seeded fruits (Di Fiore et al. , 2008; Felton et al. , 2008). Ateles are very important seed dispersal agents as they rarely masticate the seeds and instead swallow them whole, therefore contri buting to the regeneration of forests (Link and Di Fiore, 2006; Gonzlez-Zamora et al. , 2012; Link et al. , 2012). In times of fruit scarcity, Ateles complement their diet with leaves, owers, seeds, decaying wood, clay, soil, and a very small percentage of invertebrates (Di Fiore et al. , 2008; Rylands and Mittermeier, 2013). Spider monkeys are of particular interest to primatologists because they exhibit a ssion-fusion social structure similar to that of chimpanzees, which is unique among Neotro pical primates (Anaya-Huertas and Mondragn-Ceballos, 1998). is structure involves the division of a group, that can consist of over 50 individuals, into temporary sub groups (Shimooka et al. , 2008). Subgroups uctuate in size and composition throughout the day, averaging three to four individuals at a time (Van Roosmalen, 1985; Cha pman, 1988; Shimooka, 2005; Lange, 2016). Due to the clumped distributions of their primary food sources (Gon zlez-Zamora et al. , 2008) and the fact that Ateles often de plete fruit supplies in their feeding trees (Chapman, 1988), this social system evolved to reduce intragroup competition for food resources (Asensio et al. , 2008; Spehar and Di Fio re, 2013). erefore, group ssion is evoked when fruit is scarce, and conversely, fusion occurs in instances of high fruit availability (Asensio et al. , 2008; Aureli and Schaner, 2008). Hence, subgroups need to visit fewer food patches to nd sucient food (Aureli and Schaner, 2008). Figure 1. An example of Ateles chamek with its distinct morpholo gical characteristics, e.g. the long limbs and prehensile tail. Photo credit: Liselot Lange (2016). Ateles usually prefer primary, closed-canopy forests (Mi chalski and Peres, 2005; Wallace, 2008; Salvador et al. , 2011), and they are found to spend more than 70% of the time in the higher canopy levels above 25 m (Van Roos malen, 1985; Wallace, 2008). Ateles may be restricted to the highest canopy levels due to dietary and physical spe cialization. Ateles are extremely frugivorous (Campbell et al., 2005; Wallace 2008), and ripe fruit is seldom found in lower forest levels (Campbell et al. , 2005). Furthermore, their shoulder joint modications and elongated forelimbs do not allow for terrestrial quadrupedism, making it harder for Ateles to visit the ground (Campbell et al. , 2005). ey are believed to descend to the forest oor only for drinking,

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23 Most research on spider monkeys has been conducted in protected areas (Gonzlez-Zamora et al. , 2008), and little is known about their behavioral ecology in unprotected areas (Hagell, Whipple and Chambers, 2013). In this study, we report the demography, habitat use, activity budget and preliminary notes on ranging patterns and diet of Ateles chamek in an area not part of a national park or reserve. Methods Study site is study was conducted at the Las Piedras Amazon Cen ter (LPAC), a 4,465-hectare ecotourism and conservation concession run by the non-governmental organization (NGO) the Alliance for Research and Conservation in the Amazon (ARCAmazon). e site is located in the Madre de Dios department of Peru (-12.0709367 S, -69.5005917 W), approximately 65 km from the town of Puerto Mal donado and 55 km from the border with Brazil. e site consists of terra rme and oodplain forest ranging from 200 to 400 m in elevation along the Las Piedras River. Our research was conducted between May 2016 and Decem ber 2017. During this time, minimum temperature ave raged 22C, maximum temperature 35C, humidity levels averaged between 60 and 90% and average daily rainfall between 10 and 220 mm (Weather Underground, 2019; World Weather Online, 2019). Field work was based out of the research center at LPAC, which takes up less than one hectare of the land and consists of sleeping platforms and communal areas. e concession contains approxima tely 37 km of mapped trails, some of which were used to observe the focal group in the north-east of the concession. A stream (the Loboyoc) cuts from the south-west to the north-east of the concession and joins with the Las Piedras River. e stream is traversable by the study group which has multiple crossing points along its course. Within the concession, multiple groups of spider monkeys are found without any major geographical boundaries separating the groups. is study solely focused on one of the groups in the north-east of the concession. e river shed of Las Piedras is an extraction forest, and most concessions are used for the exportation of Brazil nuts and timber. Hunting (mostly illegal) is a common prac tice in the concessions surrounding LPAC, as the region does not lie within a national park or reserve and there is little protection for wildlife. ARCAmazon acquired the LPAC-concession in April 2015 with the aim to preserve the land and create a corridor for ora and fauna while forming alliances with other NGOs and landowners. Ten species of non-human primates are found within the con cession (Lange, 2016). Subjects e focal group consisted of eight well-habituated, indivi dually recognizable Ateles chamek at the start of the study (May 2016). As there had been tourism in the years befo re the study, the spider monkeys had become accustomed to the presence of humans. ere were three adult males (Ezra, Luca, Scar) and ve females, where we group both subadult and adult females into one category (Juno, Mami, Manchas, Flor, Rose). e individuals were identied by facial characteristics and were given names to ease data collection and communication in the eld. roughout the study, the group’s composition uctuated due to dea th and newborn individuals. In August 2016 an infant male (Leaf) was born to Juno. Later in June 2017, the ol dest female (Manchas) passed away from natural causes. e remains were discovered in a decomposing state, after which it was discovered that the subject’s left ankle and foot were missing. Post-mortem examination showed the animal had worn teeth and brittle bones; indicators of old age. e individual also had a healed fracture of the left humerus, but did not show limitations in movement whi lst alive. Around the same time of this death, a female infant (Maya) was born to Mami. By the end of the study (December 2017), the group consisted of three adult males (Ezra, Luca, Scar), two (sub)adult females (Flor, Rose), two lactating females (Juno, Mami), one juvenile male (Leaf), and one infant female (Maya). Data collection e data on Ateles chamek were collected through focal fo llows of the study subjects. Follows took place in surveys between 05:00 and 19:00, covering all hours in which Ateles are known to be active. Existing trails within the concession were walked at a slow speed (between one and two km/h) to locate the study group. Upon encountering a subgroup or the entire group, a random individual was chosen for the focal observations. In this study data were collected only on adult individuals, as the infants and ju veniles’ behavior is strongly correlated with their mother’s behavior. Data were collected on adult males, sub and adult females (without ospring), and lactating females (with ospring). Behavioral data were collected on the focal individual every fth minute, using instantaneous focal sampling (Altmann, 1974). For gathering data on their activity budget, the following categories were used; traveling, resting, foraging, and other (Table 1). e forest level use of the focal individual was also recorded every fth minute (between the ground and 10 m high, between 10 m and 20 m high, or above 20 m high). e focal animal was followed for one hour, until out of sight for more than ten minutes, until no longer possible to follow, or until the sun set and the focal settled at a slee ping site. After one hour of following a focal individual, a new individual was selected. e focal individual’s move ments were recorded by creating a track with a handheld GPS-system (GARMIN 64s). Data were also collected on diet by recording and identif ying food items consumed by the spider monkeys (fruits, owers, leaves, bark, clay or invertebrates). Additionally, ad libitum data were taken on social interactions and group composition. Finally, all feeding trees and sleeping sites were marked with the GPS-system.

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24 Table 1. Description of the used activity categories. Activity categories Description Traveling Moving for more than thirty seconds or between trees Resting Sleeping, being stationary or small movements less than thirty seconds Foraging e looking for, handling of, or ingestion of food or water Other Behaviors not tting into any of the other categories, e.g. social interactions between individuals, interaction with observers, defecating and/or urinating Data analysis All GPS data were uploaded into the computer software Basecamp (Garmin Ltd., 2019). By creating a polygon of the outer points of A. chamek encounters and follows, we calculated the home range (in ha) and created a map presenting habitat usage (Fig. 2). Additionally, a second map was created showing the distribution of the feeding trees and sleeping sites within the home range (Fig. 3). A non-parametric regression analysis was used to verify whe ther a correlation exists between grid-cell use and the num ber of feeding trees present within that cell. An estimation of the encountered subgroups’ daily path length was made by calculating their average speed during a follow and mul tiplying this by average time spent traveling per day. e group’s activity budget was calculated by combining the frequency of behavior in all samples. e activity budgets of adult males, (sub)adult females (without ospring) and lactating females (with ospring) are compared through descriptive analyses. No statistical analyses were applied due to the small sample size. All food items consumed were categorized (fruits, owers, bark, clay and invertebra tes) and frequency of consumption of each category was expressed as a percentage of all feeding observations throu ghout the study. Results A total of 1,519 instants, obtained from 149 focal fo llows, were analyzed. On average the focal follows lasted 45.60.11 minutes. Demography Total group size uctuated between eight and nine indivi duals over the course of the study due to one death and two newborns. Observed subgroup size ranged from one to nine individuals, with an average of 4.63.92 members. e subgroups also varied in composition (Fig. 2). e most common type of subgroup consisted of one or more females with their ospring, which accounted for 41.2% of encounters. e second most common group observed was both males and females with ospring, which accoun ted for 31.9% of subgroups. Interestingly, while 10.9% of observed subgroups consisted of males only, female-only subgroups without ospring were never encountered. e percentage of solitary encounters were low, with solitary females and males accounting for only 3.4 and 3.6% of subgroups respectively. For the group as a whole, male to female ratio at the start of the study was 1:1.67, but this decreased to 1:1.25 by the end of the study. Figure 2. A histogram showing the relative frequency of A. cha mek subgroup types encountered (n= 119 encounters). Habitat use e group occupied forest levels higher than 20 m for 75.2% of the time, levels between 10 and 20 m for 23.2% of the time and were rarely found below 10 m. e home range was approximately 160 ha, consisting entirely of oodplain forest. Figure 3 shows the intensity of area use within the home range and includes bordering areas (repre sented in white) rarely or not visited by the study group. A signicant positive correlation was found between the number of feeding trees within a cell and the frequency of Ateles chamek encounters within that cell (R2 = 0.38, N = 93, P < 0.001). Figure 4 shows the distribution of 79 feeding trees and four sleeping sites that were located throughout the study period.

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25 Figure 4 . One-hectare grid map with the distribution of feeding trees and sleeping sites throughout the home range of the focal Ateles chamek group at the Las Piedras Amazon Center, Peru. Preliminary notes on ranging pattern On average, the individuals encountered traveled two hours and 47 minutes per day and their speed was approxi mately 440 m per hour. is means the group’s estimated daily path length was 1,200 m per day. More in-depth research is required to determine whether subgroup size has an inuence on ranging patterns. Activity budgets e activity budget of the spider monkeys consisted of 41.9% resting, 23.8% traveling, 30% foraging and 4.3% other behaviors. e category ‘other’ consisted of 3.8% social interactions between group members, for instance aliative behaviors such as playing and handling other female’s ospring, and also agonistic behaviors such as ag gressive chases. e remaining time was spent on behaviors such as urination, defecation, and interaction with obser vers. Our results (see Figure 5) show that lactating fema les (with ospring) spent the least time resting out of the three age-sex classes of A. chamek, and (sub)adult females (without ospring) spent most time resting. In regard to traveling, adult males traveled most and lactating females (with ospring) least. Lactating females (with ospring) spent far more time foraging than the other two age-sex classes, with adult males spending the least amount of time foraging. Lastly, adult males demonstrated other behaviors more frequently, such as interactions with observers and social behaviors. Preliminary notes on diet A total of 383 records of foraging events were analyzed for the study period. e majority of the group’s diet con sisted of fruits (84.4%, n =325), with leaves being the se cond most consumed item (9.7%, n =37). e group su pplemented these food items with small amounts of seeds, owers and bark. One instance of geophagy was observed where a lactating female (with ospring) consumed clay from an arboreal ant nest. Figure 3. One-hectare grid map of the approximately 160 ha home range of the focal Ateles chamek group at the Las Piedras Amazon Center, Peru, showing the frequency of encounters wi thin each cell. Figure 5. Dierences in activity budgets between three dierent age-sex classes of Ateles chamek. Discussion e total size of this particular group (eight to nine indi viduals) is unusually small at this site. Other (sub)groups within the concession with larger numbers of individuals (usually between 15 and 20) were sighted and we have no clear understanding of why the study group in particular is so small. Despite no clear geographical boundaries exis ting within the concession, no interactions were recorded between the study group and other Ateles groups. Previous

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26 research on the genus and species report larger group sizes, between 15 and 50 individuals per group (Van Roosmal en, 1985; McFarland Symington, 1988a; Shimooka et al. , 2008). However, one long-term study by Ramos-Fernan dez et al. (2005) followed a group of Ateles georoyi of a similar size (8 adults); this group lived within a fragmen ted forest, and the habitat was likely a major limitation on their group size. e average subgroup size that we found was, however, very similar to other studies (van Roosmalen, 1985; Chapman, 1988; Shimooka et al. , 2008). erefore, it appears that subgroup size is not correlated with group size. We propose that a possible reason for subgroup size to be around this number is to maximize safety. It is possible that smaller subgroups are less likely to detect a potential predator whilst more likely to be predated upon. Further more, it is likely that smaller subgroups are less capable of defending their territory against rival Ateles groups. e sub group composition also stayed similar to groups with more individuals (Chapman 1990), where females with ospring were the most common composition of subgroups. is is expected, as females without ospring are known to display maternal behaviors towards other female’s ospring, poten tially to practice motherhood themselves and, therefore, stay close to these females (Slater et al. 2007). e male to female ratio within the focal study group was found to be lower than most other groups studied (Chapman, et al. 1989), however, we do not consider this surprising due to the extremely small size of the focal group. e home range that we found is similar to the home ranges reported in other studies (McFarland Symington, 1988a; Wallace, 2008). We had anticipated a much smaller home range considering the small size of this group compared to group size in other studies on the genus. Campos et al . (2014) state that there is a positive relationship between primate group size and home range size, and it would be reasonable to assume that a smaller group would experien ce less competition for resources and thus would not have to travel as far to meet resource demand. erefore, their equally sized home range could be explained by a potential fruit scarcity in the focal group’s home range, causing them to travel further to nd sucient resources. By conducting a more in-depth study on the ecology of their home range (through botanical plots) we could more accurately reveal whether fruit abundance has an inuence on home range size in this case. In contrast to Campos, Wallace (2008) found that home range size did not correlate with resident Ateles group size, and therefore there may be other factors contributing to home range size other than group size and food availability. For instance, noise disturbance and the presence of humans could force communities to retreat to less disturbed areas (Kirkby et al. , 2000; Gonzlez-Zamora et al. , 2012), hence increasing home range size. We expect that a construction project that took place at the Las Pie dras Amazon Center (within the group’s home range) du ring the study could have caused the group to range further than expected. However, comparative data from after the construction period is required to determine whether home range size and ranging patterns were aected. Daily path lengths for spider monkeys appear to vary large ly (Symington et al., 1988a, Nunes, 1998). Our ndings present a shorter average daily path length than the average reported by Symington et al. (1988a) and Nunes (1998), however this is likely due to the larger group size of the groups in those studies (18 to >35 individuals). Larger group size would likely mean the spider monkeys need to cover more distance on a daily basis to nd sucient re sources, hence explaining why the study group has shorter daily path lengths. During the study we observed one feeding event of geopha gy, in which a lactating female (with ospring) consumed clay from an arboreal ant’s nest. e main reasons for soil consumption by animals are to supplement the animal’s diet with minerals otherwise unobtainable, and that the consumption of soil supposedly aids in detoxication and alleviation of gastrointestinal problems (Link et al. , 2011). It appears that geophagy is more common during particu lar life history events like lactation or pregnancy (Link et al. , 2011, Pebsworth, et al. , 2018). Whereas other studies report Ateles spp . consume clay at clay licks, we did not identify any clay licks within the group’s home range. Ar boreal ant nests and termitaria could be a source of mine rals for primates in areas where there are fewer or no clay licks available. e mineral composition of termitaria and ant nests is usually even higher than that of topsoil (Veiga and Ferrari, 2007). is allows Ateles to obtain minerals whilst staying in the canopy. Further research is required to better understand the physiological factors driving geopha gy in spider monkeys, to gain insight into the increased consumption of clay during specic life events and nally to understand the use of arboreal ant nests and termitarium for clay consumption. Lactating females (with ospring) rested least out of the dierent age-sex classes. We expected lactating females to spend the most time resting in order to compensate for the exertion of carrying and nursing a young. However, time spent resting can sometimes serve as a pool from which time needed to accomplish other behaviors can be drawn (Dunbar, 1988). In this case, it is possible that resting time was substituted for foraging time as the lactating females spent the most time foraging. We assume that this is due to the energy demands for lactating females being higher than those without a dependent young. Although the study site is not located within any govern ment-protected area, no noticeable dierences were found in the habitat use and activity budget of the study group in comparison with studies conducted within governmen tal-protected areas. Further research is required on the populations of Ateles along the Las Piedras River shed to create large-scale conservation strategies for this region.

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27 Acknowledgements We thank the sta at ARCAmazon and LPAC for all su pport provided throughout the study and all volunteers and research assistants that helped with data collection and analysis. References Altmann, J. 1974. Observational Study of Behavior: Sam pling Methods. Behaviour , 49(3): 227. Anaya-Huertas, C. and Mondragn-Ceballos, R. 1998. Social behavior of Black-Handed Spider Monkeys ( Ate les georoyi ) reared as home pets. Int. J. Primatol . 19(4): 767. Asensio, N . , Korstjens, A.H., Schaner, C. M., Aureli, F. 2008. Intragroup aggression, ssion-fusion dynamics and feeding competition in Spider Monkeys. Behaviour . 145(7): 983. Aureli, F., Schaner, C. M., Verpooten, J., Slater, K. and Ramos-Fernndez, G. 2006. Raiding parties of male Spi der Monkeys: Insigths into human warfare? Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 131: 486. Aureli, F. and Schaner, C. M. 2008. Social interactions, relationships and the social system of spider monkeys. 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Patch Use and Patch Depletion by the Spider and Howling Monkeys of Santa Rosa National Park, Costa Rica. Behaviour . 105(1): 99. Chapman, C. A. and Chapman, L. J. 1990. Reproductive biology of captive and free-ranging spider monkeys. Zoo Biol. 9: 1. Chapman, C. A., Chapman, L. J. and McLaughlin, R. L. 1989. Multiple central place foraging by spider monkeys: travel consequences of using many sleeping sites. Oecolo gia . 79: 506. Chapman, C. A., Fedigan, L. M. and Chapman, L. J. 1989. Post-weaning resource competition and sex ratios in spider monkeys. Oikos . 54(3): 315. Chapman, C. A. and Lefebvre, L. 1990. Manipulating fo raging group size. Spider monkey food calls at fruiting trees, Anim. Behav. 39: 891. Collins, A. C. 2008. e taxonomic status of spider monkeys in the twenty-rst century. In: Spider Monkeys: Behavior, Ecology and Evolution of the Genus Ateles, C. J. Campbell (ed.), Rev. ed., pp. 50. Cambridge Univer sity Press, Cambridge. Deer, T. R. 2010. 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29 project, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsula, Sweden. Van Roosmalen, M. G. M. 1985. Habitat preferences, diet, feeding strategy and social organization of the black spi der monkey ( Ateles paniscus paniscus Linnaeus 1758) in Surinam. Acta Amazonica . 15: 0. Veiga, L. M. and Ferrari, S. F. 2007. Geophagy at termita ria by Bearded Sakis ( Chiropotes satanas ) in southeastern Brazilian Amazonia. Am. J. Primatol. 69: 816. Velzquez-Vzquez, G., Reyna-Hurtado, R., Arroyo-Rodr guez, V., Calm, S., Lger-Dalcourt, M., Navarrete, D. A. 2015. Sleeping sites of Spider Monkeys ( Ateles georo yi ) in logged and unlogged tropical forests. Int. J. Prima tol. 36(6): 1154. Wallace, R. B. 2001. Diurnal activity budgets of Black Spi der Monkeys, Ateles chamek , in a southern Amazonian tropical forest. Neotrop. Primates . 9(3): 103. Wallace, R. B. 2005. Seasonal variations in diet and fora ging behavior of Ateles chamek in a southern Amazonian tropical forest. Int. J. Primatol. 26(5): 1053. Wallace, R. B. 2006. Seasonal variations in Black-Faced Black Spider Monkey ( Ateles chamek ) habitat use and ran ging behavior in a southern Amazonian tropical forest. Amer. J. Primatol. 68: 313. Wallace, R. B. 2008. Factors inuencing spider monkey habitat use and ranging patterns. In: Spider Monkeys: Behavior, Ecology and Evolution of the Genus Ateles, C. J. Campbell (ed.), Rev. ed., pp. 138. Cambridge Uni versity Press, Cambridge, New York. Weather Underground. 2019. Monthly climate history of the Puerto Maldonado International Airport, Peru . Website: www.wunderground.com . Accessed 22 April 2019. White, F. 1986. Census and preliminary observations on the ecology of the black-faced black spider monkey ( Ate les paniscus chamek ) in Manu National Park, Peru. Am. J. Primatol. 11: 125. World Weather Online. 2019. Puerto Maldonado Monthly Climate Averages, Madre de Dios, Peru . Website: www. worldweatheronline.com . Accessed 22 April 2019. Youlatos, D. 2002. Positional behavior of Black Spider Monkeys ( Ateles paniscus ) in French Guiana. Int. J. Pri matol. 23(5): 1071. Youlatos, D. 2008. Locomotion and positional behavior of spider monkeys. In: Spider Monkeys: Behavior, Ecology and Evolution of the Genus Ateles, C. J. Campbell (ed.), Rev. ed., pp. 185. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, New York.

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30 DENSIDAD POBLACIONAL Y COMPOSICI”N DE GRUPOS DE AOTUS NANCYMAAE EN REAS DE APROVECHAMIENTO DE LA ESPECIE PARA EXPERIMENTACI”N BIOMDICA EN EL TRAPECIO AMAZ”NICO COLOMBIANO Nstor Roncancio-Duque 1 , Mariela Osorno 1 , Liza M. Caldern-Espitia 1 , Amilvia AcostaCastaeda 1 , Lina M. Garca-Loaiza 1 , Natalia Gmez-Melendro 1 and Beatriz E. Henao 1 1 Instituto Amaznico de Investigaciones Cientficas – Sinchi, E-mail: Resumen El uso de fauna, as como de otros recursos naturales, es fundamental para el desarrollo y bienestar humano. No obstante, garantizar su conservacin depende de un manejo basado en informacin conable, es decir, rigurosamente colectada y ana lizada, y adecuados esquemas de regulacin; de lo contrario se pueden sobreexplotar dichos recursos. La sobreexplotacin es uno de los cinco motores de perdida de diversidad y ha sido identicada como una amenaza directa para algunos primates. Las poblaciones de las especies del gnero Aotus en el sur de la Amazona colombiana han sido usadas para experimenta cin biomdica desde hace aproximadamente 30 aos, no obstante, el impacto de este proceso no ha sido sucientemente evaluado. Ante la reciente conrmacin de un nuevo taxn para Colombia, Aotus nancymaae , el adecuado diagnstico del estado de conservacin de sus poblaciones, la revisin de los planes de manejo y monitoreo, incluidos los procedimientos de aprovechamiento, cobran mayor importancia, dada su restringida rea de distribucin y aprovechamiento inespecco, que determinan como Vulnerable a la especie en Colombia. Se presentan resultados preliminares de algunos parmetros poblacionales, como paso inicial para determinar la salud de estas poblaciones. Los resultados y la comparacin con otros estudios permiten concluir que existe una alta carga de incertidumbre sobre informacin bsica para poder hacer un manejo sostenible de las especies en este paisaje. Palabras clave: Especies amenazadas, experimentacin biomdica, manejo de vida silvestre. Abstract e use of wildlife as a natural resource is fundamental to human welfare and development. However, to guarantee wildlife conservation, wildlife management needs to be based on reliable information, in other words, data that are rigorously col lected and analyzed, and an accurate regulatory system; otherwise wildlife overexploitation can occur. Overexploitation is one of the ve drivers of biodiversity loss and has been identied as a direct threat to some primate species. Captured animals from the wild populations of Aotus species in the southern Colombian Amazon have been used for biomedical experimentation since approximately 30 years ago; however, the impact of this process needs to be evaluated further. Since the recent conrmation of a new taxon to Colombia, Aotus nancymaae , it has become even more important to accurately as sess the conservation status of owl monkey populations in this region, as well as to review the management and monitoring plan, including protocols for use. Due to its restricted distribution and its human use, this species is considered Vulnerable in Colombia. Here we show preliminary results of some population parameters as an initial step to determine the health of this population. e results and the comparison with other studies allow us to conclude that there is a very high uncertainty about basic information needed to plan sustainable management of these species in this landscape. Keywords: reatene d species, biomedical experimentation, wildlife management. Introduccin Los seres humanos siempre han cazado y explotado recur sos naturales para sobrevivir. La explotacin, a diferencia de la cosecha, implica la extraccin de individuos o partes de individuos de poblaciones silvestres y no de plantacio nes o producciones animales (Sutherland, 2000). Se esti ma que la sobreexplotacin amenaza cerca de un tercio de las especies de vertebrados raros, vulnerables o amenazados (Groombridge, 1992). En gran parte del mundo los recur sos son explotados lo ms rpido posible. Si existe un mer cado para un producto, los habitantes locales lo buscarn y lo vendern usando cualquier mtodo disponible para ob tener el recurso. La sobreexplotacin de una especie se da rpidamente cuando se empieza su aprovechamiento en un lugar donde anteriormente no era usada y tanto el comer cio legal como ilegal son responsables de la reduccin de algunas especies. La sobreexplotacin de un recurso ocurre, entre otras razones, por falta de conocimiento del sistema de aprovechamiento (Primack, 2010). Actualmente los primates son el orden ms amenazado de mamferos en Colombia, con 26 de sus 46 taxones inclui dos en las categoras de amenaza de la Unin Internacional

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31 para la Conservacin de la Naturaleza (UICN, 2017). Para algunos primates, como por ejemplo, Saguinus oedi pus y S. leucopus , adems de la destruccin del hbitat, la extraccin de individuos para experimentacin biomdica o para comercio como mascota se ha denido como una amenaza para su conservacin (Deer, 2010). Las especies del gnero Aotus en el sur de la Amazonia colombiana, de quienes hasta ahora no hay conclusiones denitivas acerca de su distribucin (Bloor et al., 2014) y abundancias, han sido usadas durante los ltimos 30 aos como modelos bio lgicos para experimentacin biomdica. Desde octubre de 2005 hasta junio de 2012 se extrajeron de las pobla ciones silvestres a orillas del ro Amazonas en Colombia, poco ms de 4,500 individuos (Registros Corpoamazonia). Estas extracciones no necesariamente pueden considerarse mortalidades, dado que como parte del proceso de la expe rimentacin biomdica se contempla la reincorporacin de los individuos aprovechados al medio natural. As, entre octubre de 2006 y septiembre de 2012 fueron liberados 4,041 individuos en la regin (Registros Corpoamazonia). Sin embargo, el impacto de los diferentes procedimientos del proceso de aprovechamiento sobre las especies del g nero en esta zona (Fidic, 2007; Hernndez y Daz, 2010; Maldonado, 2011), no puede determinarse adecuadamen te, ya que el estado de conservacin de sus poblaciones no ha sido determinado con suciencia. Un paso inicial para conocer el estado de una poblacin es hacer una estimacin emprica de su abundancia, no obstante una estimacin de la densidad poblacional de una especie es preferible dado que este parmetro reeja la relacin que hay entre la poblacin y el rea que ocupa (Begon et al., 2009). La densidad poblacional es un pa rmetro dinmico espacial y temporalmente, por tanto, la estimacin inicial de la densidad es til mientras se asuma como base de un programa de seguimiento, que permita determinar sus tendencias. De esta forma se pueden es timar tasas de crecimiento poblacional y evaluar el com portamiento de este parmetro en poblaciones sometidas a diferentes niveles de aprovechamiento (Anzures-Dadda y Manson, 2007; Arroyo-Rodrguez et al., 2008). Siguiendo estas consideraciones, se estim la densidad poblacional de Aotus nancymaae en un rea en la cual se extrajeron 184 individuos entre febrero de 2011 y abril de 2012 (Registros Corpoamazonia). Adicionalmente se presentan estimacio nes de composicin de grupo de esta especie a una escala es pacial ms amplia, como primer paso en la evaluacin de la poblacin de esta recin conrmada especie para Colombia (Bloor et al., 2014) y que se encuentra categorizada como vulnerable (VU) (Maldonado et al., 2017). Materiales y mtodos rea de estudio El rea de estudio est ubicada en el Resguardo Ticoya, juris diccin del municipio de Puerto Nario, departamento de Amazonas, Colombia. Para la determinacin de la compo sicin de grupos los muestreos se hicieron especcamente en sitios cercanos a las comunidades: San Pedro de Tipisca (-70’’W, -3’’S) , Doce de Octubre (-70 ’’ , -3’’), Naranjales (-70’’, -3 ’ 18 ’’ ), San Juan de Atacuari (-70 ’ 34 ’’ W, -3 ’ 26 ’’ ) y Santa Clara de Ta rapoto (-70 ’ 51 ’’ , -3 ’ 02 ’’ ). El muestreo para estimar la densidad poblacional de la especie se llev a cabo en los alrededores de la comunidad Naranjales, en aproximada mente 19 km 2 de rea inferencial, es decir, de donde se pue de asumir que el muestreo es representativo, conformados por un mosaico de humedales permanentes y zonas altas inundables conocidas localmente como “restingas” (Fig. 1). Figura 1. rea de estudio. El circulo en la comunidad de Naranjales corresponde a la zona en donde se establecieron los transectos para la estimacin de la densidad poblacional. Los puntos negros son los sitios de capturas de individuos o grupos de Aotus nancymaae.

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32 Para la ejecucin del proyecto, se elev la consulta previa reglamentaria ante el Ministerio del Interior y se obtuvo respuesta aclarando que no se requera la consulta debido a que el proyecto de investigacin no generaba ninguna afectacin a los grupos tnicos. No obstante, se socializ el proyecto en las 22 comunidades del resguardo Ticoya. Entre julio y noviembre de 2012 se desarroll el trabajo de campo. Toma de datos Densidad poblacional Para estimar la densidad de A. nancymaae alrededor de la comunidad de Naranjales, se emple el mtodo de mues treo por distancias con transectos lineales, mediante el cual se registra el nmero de animales vistos por un observador que camina a lo largo de un transecto, y la distancia perpen dicular hasta el punto donde se observaron los animales o hasta el centro geogrco del grupo observado (Buckland et al., 2007; Buckland et al., 2015; omas et al., 2010). Los transectos se ubicaron de acuerdo a la conguracin del rea, dado que existen humedales permanentes que impiden el acceso. Se establecieron 18 transectos con una longitud total de 29.6 km y un promedio de 1,644.4 m (DS 407.6 m); algunos correspondieron a caminos ya existentes, mientras se pudieran satisfacer los supuestos de que a 0 metros de distancia perpendicular la probabilidad de deteccin sera del 100 % y de la independencia de las observaciones, es decir, que no hubiera probabilidad de contar los mismos animales ms de una vez en un mismo recorrido (rectitud del transecto) y, de que no se contara el mismo grupo en dos transectos distintos en recorridos simultneos por las acciones evasivas del grupo ante una primera deteccin. Cada transecto fue recorrido en pro medio 2.89 veces, con una distancia promedio de 4.9 km por transecto, acumulando un esfuerzo de muestreo de 88.6 km. Los transectos fueron recorridos silenciosamen te escrutando la vegetacin, a una velocidad promedio de 1.03 km/h. Se realizaron conteos simultneos con un ob servador por transecto. Los transectos fueron recorridos desde las 3:30 hasta las 5:30 horas, y desde las 17:35 hasta las 19:35 horas. En los muestreos slo se incluyeron los re gistros visuales. El recorrido de los transectos y la hora en que ste se efectu, se distribuy proporcionalmente entre los observadores, para eliminar posibles sesgos asociados a un mismo observador recorriendo repetidamente un mis mo transecto y/o hacindolo a la misma hora (Roncancio et al., 2009). Con el objetivo de mantener constante la probabilidad de deteccin a lo largo de un transecto, se procur tener la misma velocidad durante el recorrido; por tal motivo, una vez ubicado un grupo, el observador permaneci mximo hasta 15 minutos con el grupo para intentar su conteo completo (Peres, 1999). Cada vez que fue localizado un grupo, se registr la hora, el nmero de individuos, se midi la distancia perpendicular al transec to, se registr la coordenada y la actividad que los animales desarrollaban. Estructura y composicin de grupos Los datos para estos anlisis se colectaron en el marco de la investigacin para determinar la identidad de las espe cies del gnero Aotus que habitan en el trapecio amaznico colombiano (cinco localidades evaluadas en el resguardo Ticoya) y algunos de sus parmetros demogrcos, lo cual implicaba la captura de individuos libres. Estas capturas fueron hechas por un equipo conformado por un bilogo, un veterinario y expertos locales. Todo el proceso de cap tura, toma de muestras y marcaje de los animales se ejecut bajo tres principios: 1. garantizar la integridad fsica de las personas que participaban en el proceso, 2. garantizar la integridad fsica de los animales y 3. garantizar la calidad de las muestras y los datos. El procedimiento se desarro ll de la siguiente forma: inicialmente los expertos locales hacan jornadas de bsqueda y seguimiento a partir de la 3:00 y hasta la 6:30 horas, en las cuales intentaban ubi car un grupo de Aotus y seguirlo hasta su nido. Una vez el grupo entraba al nido, los colectores permanecan hasta aproximadamente las 6:30 horas vericando que el grupo no se desplazar a otro lugar. Posteriormente, los colecto res regresaban al sitio de reunin con el resto del equipo e informaban las caractersticas del nido y la viabilidad de la captura conforme a los tres principios de seguridad y ca lidad. Las capturas se realizaron a partir de las 9:30 y las 10:00 y hasta las 15:00 horas, periodo en el que los indivi duos de la especie de este gnero se encuentran menos aler ta. En esta zona los nidos de Aotus son bsicamente de dos clases. Los primeros estn ubicados en vegetacin densa en la parte alta de un rbol “Chamiceras”, mientras los otros estn ubicados en huecos de rboles. El primer tipo de nido solo se puede alcanzar por medio de tala de entre 300 y 500 m 2 alrededor del rbol y poda del rbol en el que se encuentra el nido, por tanto, los grupos que se encontraron en este tipo de nido no se intentaron capturar. Por otro lado, los primates que se encontraron en huecos de rboles se capturaron de dos formas dependiendo de la altura y la cantidad de huecos de salida que tena el nido. La primera fue por medio de un acceso sigiloso, respetando la distan cia mnima de fuga a los huecos o hueco del nido, con el objetivo de taparlos con tela plstica usando varas de palma “marona”, si la distancia de acceso lo demandaba. La se gunda tcnica implic la intimidacin de los animales para que no se fugaran del nido, utilizando varas de alrededor de 40 cm de longitud, lanzadas desde el suelo mientras uno o dos integrantes del equipo asciende a tapar el nido con tela plstica o mallas. Luego de que el nido estaba asegurado, se vericaba la profundidad del mismo y se proceda a la ex traccin de los animales obligando su desplazamiento hasta el fondo del nido, la boca del agujero del mismo o, hasta una abertura hecha para su extraccin. Para esta actividad se cont con equipo certicado de ascenso a dosel el cual inclua cuerda, arneses, cascos, cordinos, cintas tubulares, mosquetones, ascendedores, descendedores (Ocho y ATC) y guantes. Cada integrante del equipo recibi previamente entre seis y 12 horas de instruccin en el manejo de los equipos y en tcnicas de ascenso a dosel.

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33 Una vez capturados los individuos, estos fueron ubicados individualmente en bolsas de tela negra; en el suelo, cada animal fue tranquilizado con Ketamina va intramuscular en la parte posterior del muslo, con dosis de entre 5 y 15 mg/kg de peso (los individuos eran pesados previa inocu lacin del medicamento). Este proceso fue monitoreado a travs de la lectura continua de la temperatura, frecuencia cardiaca y frecuencia respiratoria. A los animales captu rados se les tomaron los siguientes datos: peso, longitud total, longitud oreja, longitud de pie, longitud de cola, longitud corporal, circunferencia, sexo, estado reproducti vo (gestante, lactante, presencia de testculos escrotales), se hicieron registros fotogrcos de diferentes planos, de los dientes y de un tatuaje que se le haca en la cara ventral de muslo (para identicar recapturas). Para la estructura de la poblacin se denieron preliminarmente cuatro categoras de desarrollo, adultos, subadultos, juveniles e infantes con base en los criterios utilizados por Castao et al. (2010). Anlisis de datos Densidad poblacional La densidad poblacional de A. nancymaae en Naranjales se estim con el programa DISTANCE 7.1 (omas et al., 2010). El objetivo del anlisis del muestreo a distancia es ajustar una funcin de deteccin de las distancias perpendi culares de las observaciones y usar esta funcin para estimar la proporcin de objetos que no se detectaron en el mues treo (Buckland et al., 2001; Buckland et al., 2015). Para la estimacin de la densidad de individuos se us el tamao de grupo estimado E(s), a partir de la regresin entre la pro babilidad de deteccin y el tamao de grupo, de tal forma que se evite el sesgo generado por la reduccin en la detec tabilidad de los grupos ms pequeos registrados durante los muestreos en los transectos. Se compar la distribucin de frecuencias de las distancias perpendiculares con seis modelos: 1. Half normal con serie de expansin Coseno, 2 . Half normal con Hermite polynomial , 3. Uniforme con Coseno , 4. Uniforme con Simple polynomial , 5. Hazard-rate con Coseno y 6. Hazard-rate con Simple polynomial . De los anteriores modelos se eligi el que present el menor valor de AIC (Criterio de Informacin de Akaike). El AIC es un mtodo cuantitativo para la seleccin del modelo que mejor se ajusta a los datos y que emplea el menor nmero de parmetros (Burnham y Anderson, 2002). Tamao y composicin de grupos Para determinar el tamao medio de grupo en esta zona del trapecio amaznico (cinco localidades del resguardo Ti coya) s e tuvo en cuenta la informacin de todos los grupos (capturados y no capturados) para los cuales se logr su con teo completo. Para determinar la composicin de los grupos se tuvieron en cuenta aquellos grupos que fueron capturados en su totalidad; para la composicin se evalu la proporcin de cada categora de edad y de los gneros. Se evalu adems la relacin entre machos adultos y hembras adultas y entre hembras adultas e inmaduros (juveniles ms infantes). Resultados Densidad poblacional Se obtuvieron 24 registros visuales de A. nancymaae. La distribucin de frecuencias de las distancias perpendicu lares present un mejor ajuste al modelo Uniforme con serie de expansin coseno. La densidad poblacional de A. nancymaae en la localidad de Naranjales fue de 23.9 individuos/km 2 (IC95 % = 13,6 – 42,3) y 8.8 grupos/ km 2 (IC95 % = 5,1 – 15,2), con coecientes de variacin del 28,8 % y 27,2 % respectivamente. La varianza de la densidad fue inuenciada por la probabilidad de deteccin (59,6 %), la tasa de encuentro (29,1 %) y el tamao de gru po (11,3 %). Tamao y composicin de grupos Se capturaron 150 individuos de A. nancymaae en las cinco localidades . Cincuenta y ocho por ciento de los individuos capturados fueron adultos (37 % hembras y 21 % machos), 5 % subadultos y 29 % inmaduros (Tabla 3). Tabla 3. Estado de desarrollo y gnero por localidad de los individuos capturados del gnero Aotus . Estado de desarrollo Adulto Infante Juvenil Subadulto Total Localidad/Gnero H M H M H M H M Doce de Octubre 8 7 4 3 1 23 Naranjales 11 2 2 6 4 1 26 San Juan de Atacuari 23 13 1 6 3 2 2 50 Santa Clara de Tarapoto 13 10 10 10 4 4 51 Sub-total 55 32 1 1 22 22 10 9 150 Total 87 2 44 8 De las 55 hembras adultas capturadas 62 % estaban repro ductivamente activas (19 gestantes y 15 lactantes). Se cap tur un infante, aparentemente nacido durante la primera quincena de noviembre. El tamao promedio de grupo fue de 3.06 individuos (IC 95 % = 2.89 – 3.22, n = 138) con un rango de dos a cinco individuos; 36 con dos individuos, 51

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34 con tres, 34 con cuatro y 11 con cinco. Se registraron seis individuos solitarios. Se capturaron 17 grupos completos: la relacin hembras: machos fue 1: 0.94 y, de hembras: in maduros 1: 0.52. Discusin Para la localidad de Naranjales se estim una densidad poblacional de alrededor de 24 ind/km 2 y para las cinco localidades evaluadas un tamao promedio de grupo de tres individuos. Comparando los intervalos de conanza (Cumming et al., 2007), la densidad encontrada no pre senta diferencia signicativa con otras estimaciones hechas para la especie o al menos para especies gemelas en la cuen ca del Amazonas en Per (Aquino y Encarnacin, 1986; Aquino y Encarnacin, 1988), y en reas cercanas a esta lo calidad en Colombia (Fidic, 2007; corregido de Hernndez y Daz 2010; Maldonado, 2011) (Fig. 2). No obstante, un resultado publicado por Maldonado (2011) el cual indica una densidad de cerca de 7 ind/km 2 en Per, podra ser sig nicativamente menor, pero este no fue tenido en cuenta, dado que presenta un coeciente de variacin de entre 3.3 y 4.1 ind/km 2 , el cual deja por fuera el estimador puntual, reejando un error en el anlisis o en la presentacin de los resultados. La ausencia de diferencias signicativas entre estos resul tados puede deberse a que los coecientes de variacin de la densidad poblacional para todas las localidades fueron altos (>10 % para los que presentan medidas de dispersin). Esta imprecisin en la estimacin de la densidad est in uenciada usualmente, en mayor proporcin, por la varia cin en la tasa de encuentro, producto del bajo nmero de transectos dispuestos para los muestreos (Hernndez y Daz 2010). El mtodo de muestreo por distancia con transectos lineales, apegado al principio de replicacin de inferencia estadstica, est propuesto para ser implementado con un tamao de muestra de entre 25 y 30 transectos (Buckland et al., 2001; Buckland et al., 2007; Buckland et al., 2010a; omas et al., 2010). No obstante, los estudios citados usan entre seis y ocho transectos y el presente 18. Es ne cesario disear muestreos con un mayor tamao muestreal para aumentar la precisin de los estimados y de esta forma poder detectar diferencias espaciales y temporales si las hay (evitar cometer error tipo II al no detectar diferencias cuan do las hay), y de esta forma poder tomar las decisiones de manejo correspondientes (Elzinga, 2001; Janson, 2011). A pesar de la imprecisin sealada, en general los resultados previos a este estudio indican que la densidad de esta espe cie est usualmente entre los 20 y 40 ind/km 2 , valor que puede ser considerado como lnea de base y umbral para denir objetivos de manejo, es decir, para determinar si es necesario aumentar o se puede mantener la densidad pobla cional de la especie en las localidades evaluadas. Con relacin al tamao de grupo, tres de seis estimacio nes hechas recientemente (Maldonado, 2011; Hernndez y Daz, 2010) fueron signicativamente menores (2.0 0.22 en Chineria & Yahuma-Per; 1.88 0.16 en Vista Alegre-Pe r y 2.05 0.13 en Caldern, Maldonado, 2011). Las esti maciones de Mocagua (3.3 1.4, Maldonado, 2011), Reser vas Privadas-Colombia (3.5 0.11 Maldonado, 2011) y San Juan de Atacuari-Siete de Agosto (2.74 0.96 Hernndez y Daz, 2010) no resultaron signicativamente diferentes. La estimacin del tamao de grupo en este estudio se hizo con base en grupos para los cuales se asumi conteo completo. Las estimaciones de los otros estudios se hicieron durante los muestreos para estimar la densidad. Figura 2. Comparacin de densidades poblacionales de Aotus sp. en la cuenca del Ro Amazonas.; Caldern, Mocagua, San Martn.

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35 Cuando se estiman densidades poblacionales con el mto do de muestreo por distancias con transectos lineales, hacer el conteo completo de los grupos es usualmente difcil y esto se ve reejado en relaciones encontradas entre el ta mao de grupo y la probabilidad de deteccin o entre la distancia perpendicular y el tamao de grupo (cuando el grupo es ms grande, mayor probabilidad de deteccin o, a mayor distancia perpendicular la estimacin del tamao de grupo tiende a ser menor, porque es ms difcil contarlo); en este sentido, si se usa el tamao medio de grupo, las densidades tienden a subestimarse; por tanto, la densidad debe ser calculada con el tamao estimado de grupo dada la regresin (Buckland et al., 2007). Los estimados de tama o de grupo presentados por Maldonado (2011) no especi can si son los estimados con base en la regresin o son el tamao medio. Si son el tamao medio de grupo contado durante los muestreos de densidad, probablemente estn subestimados, ms an, tratndose de una especie con h bitos nocturnos (Buckland et al., 2010a; Buckland et al., 2010b). Por otro lado, las diferencias encontradas, pueden estar reejando cambios ecolgicos reales y en este sentido habra que plantear hiptesis para dilucidar qu factores es tn determinando estas diferencias (Janson, 2011). La relacin machos adultos-hembras adultas es tpica para las especies de esta familia, en donde los grupos estn con formados por la pareja reproductiva y sus cras (Wright, 1978; Aquino y Encarnacin, 1986; Aquino y Encarna cin, 1988; Fernandez-Duque et al., 2001; Castao et al., 2010; Hernndez y Daz, 2010). La poblacin de A. nancymaae evaluada present una baja proporcin de individuos inmaduros, con una relacin hembras adul tas: inmaduros (1: 0,5). Esta situacin, de ser generali zada, podra llevar a un incorrecto remplazamiento de los individuos adultos (Deer, 1981). La relacin entre el nmero de hembras adultas: inmaduros (juveniles ms infantes), puede ser un indicativo del “estado de salud” de una poblacin; donde relaciones menores a 1: 0,75 sugie ren poblaciones en dicultades o en disminucin (Heltne et al., 1976; Estrada et al., 2002). No obstante, slo con estudios a largo plazo, se puede determinar si una pobla cin est aumentando o disminuyendo, o si simplemente existen uctuaciones intra e interanuales en el nmero de individuos, debido a la variacin intrnseca en la natali dad o supervivencia de los juveniles (Struhsaker., 1981). En este sentido, no se puede concluir acerca del impacto que generan los diferentes procedimientos (captura, ex traccin y liberacin) del proceso de experimentacin, a la poblacin. Esta incertidumbre se asocia en primer lugar, con la falta de robustez de los diseos de muestreo y consecuentemente una baja potencia estadstica que no permite comparar las densidades entre zonas con y sin intervencin y, segundo, con la falta de trazabilidad de los animales capturados; integrantes de la comunidad local manifestaron que algunos de los individuos ingresados a la FIDIC como provenientes de Naranjales fueron ex trados realmente de la zona de Caballococha en el Per. Adicionalmente las liberaciones pueden estar cumpliendo el papel de refuerzos o suplementos como estrategia de conservacin basada en el desplazamiento de organismos vivos (UICN 2013). De los 150 individuos capturados, 19 eran individuos que estuvieron en la FIDIC y fueron liberados (basados en el hallazgo de los tatuajes de la FI DIC). Los animales encontrados tenan un tiempo de sobrevivencia de entre siete meses y tres aos-nueve meses (segn registros de Corpoamazonia). Todos los indivi duos capturados que estaban marcados pertenecan a gru pos conformados por dos o tres individuos. Con base en estos resultados consideramos que, todo el procedimiento de manejo de la especie y en general de las especies del gnero Aotus aprovechadas con nes biomdi cos, debe ser revisado y ajustado muy conservadoramente considerando 1) la falta de conocimiento bsico, especial mente de parmetros poblacionales, 2) que para A. nancy maae no haba permiso de aprovechamiento dado que su presencia en Colombia no haba sido conrmada, 3) que su rea de distribucin podra ser muy reducida (aproxima damente 652 km 2 ) (Maldonado et al., 2017) y, 4) que los protocolos de los diferentes procedimientos no garantizan trazabilidad de los sitios de extraccin de los individuos para su posterior liberacin (Roncancio, 2012) y por lo tanto no se puede evaluar el impacto de todo el proceso de aprovechamiento, ni planicar su manejo adaptativamente (CMP, 2007). Agradecimientos Esta investigacin fue hecha con el apoyo tcnico y nan ciero del Instituto Sinchi, el Instituto de Gentica de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, la Corporacin Aut noma Regional de la Amazonia y el Ministerio de Ambien te y Desarrollo Sostenible. El trabajo de campo se logr gracias a la participacin de las comunidades del resguardo Ticoya (Ticuna, Cocama y Yagua) y sus expertos locales. Referencias Anzures-Dadda, A. y Manson, R. H. 2007. Patch-and Landscape-scale Eects on Howler Monkey distribution and abundance in rainforest fragments. Anim. Conserv. 10(1): 69. Aquino, R. y Encarnacin, F. 1986. Population structure of Aotus nancymai (Cebidae: Primates) in Peruvian Ama zon lowland forest. Am . J . Primatol . 11(1): 1. Aquino, R. y Encarnacin, F. 1988. Population densities and geographic distribution of Night Monkeys ( Aotus nancymai and Aotus vociferans ) (Cebidae: Primates) in northeastern Peru. Am . J . Primatol . 14(4): 375. Arroyo-Rodrguez, V., Asensio, N. y Cristbal-Azkarate, J. 2008. Demography, life History and migrations in a Mexican Mantled Howler group in a rainforest fragment. Am . J . Primatol . 70(2): 114. Begon, M., Townsend, C. R. y Harper, J. L. 2009. Ecolo gy : From Individuals to Ecosystems . John Wiley & Sons, Oxfort, UK.

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36 Bloor, P., Ibaez, C., Arciniegas, S., Hoyas, M. y Hernn dez, S. 2014. Estudio gentico del gnero Aotus al sur de la Amazonia de Colombia. Asociacin Colombiana de Zoologa. 2015. La biodiversidad sensible: patrimo nio natural irreemplazable. IV Congreso Colombiano de Zoologa. Libro de resmenes. Asociacin Colombiana de Zoologa. Disponible en lnea: www.congresocolom bianodezoologia.org / www.aczcolombia.org. Buckland, S., Anderson, D., Burnham, K., Laake, J., Bor chers, D. y omas, L. 2001. Introduction to the Distance sampling: Estimating Abundance of Biological Populations . Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK. Buckland, S. T., Anderson, D. R., Burnham, K. P. y o mas. L. 2007. Advanced Distance Sampling: Estimating Abundance of Biological Populations . Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK. Buckland, S.T., Rexstad, E.A., Marques, T.A. y Oedeko ven, C.S. 2015. Distance Sampling: Methods and Applica tions . Springer, Switzerland. Buckland, S. T., Plumptre, A. J. omas, L. y Rexstad, E. A. 2010. Line transect sampling of Primates: can ani mal-to-observer distance methods work?. Int . J . Primatol . 31(3): 485. Buckland, S. T., Plumptre, A. J., omas, L., Rexstad, E.A. 2010. Design and analysis of line transect surveys for Pri mates. Int . J . Primatol . 31(5): 833. Burnham, K. P., Anderson, D. R. 2002. Model Selection and Multimodel Inference: a Practical Information-theoretic Approach . 2nd ed. Springer, New York. Castao, J., Cardona, D. y Botero, J. 2010. Ecologa del mono nocturno andino ( Aotus lemurinus ) en fragmentos de bosque subandinos de Colombia. En: Primatologia en Colombia: avances al principio del milenio , V. Pereira-Ben goa, P. R. Stevenson, M. L. Bueno y F. Nassar-Montoya (eds.), pp.69-90. Fundacin Universitaria San Martn, Bogot, Colombia. CMP-e Conservation Measures Pantnership. 2007. e Open Standards for the Practice of Conservation, Release 2.0 . USAID. Cumming, G., Fidler, F. y Vaux, D. L. 2007. Error Bars in Experimental biology. J. Cell Biol. 177(1): 7. Deer, T. R. 2010. Historia Natural de Los Primates Co lombianos . Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogot, Colombia. Deer, T. R. 1981. e Density of Alouatta seniculus in the Eastern Llanos of Colombia. Primates 22(4): 564. Elzinga, C. L. 2001. Monitoring Plant and Animal Popula tions . Blackwell Science, Malden, Mass. Estrada, A., Castellanos, L., Garcia Y., Franco, B., Muoz, D., Ibarra A., Rivera, A., Fuentes E., Jimnez, C. 2002. Survey of the black howler monkey, Alouatta pigra , popu lation at the Mayan site of Palenque, Chiapas, Mexico. Primates 43(1): 51. Fernandez-Duque, E., Rotundo, M. y Sloan, C. 2001. Density and population structure of Owl Monkeys ( Ao tus azarae ) in the Argentinean Chaco. Am . J . Primatol . 53(3): 99. Fundacin Instituto de Inmunologa de Colombia-FI DIC. 2007. Estimacin del estatus actual de las pobla ciones naturales de micos del gnero Aotus en San Juan de Atacuari en el trapecio amaznico colombiano. Le ticia, Amazonas. Groombridge, B. 1992. Global Biodiversity . Status of the Earth’s Living Resources : a Report . Chapman & Hall, Lon don-New York. Heltne, P. G., Turner, D. C. y Scott. N. J. 1976. Compa rison of census data on Alouatta villosa (= palliata ) from Costa Rica and Panama. En: Neotropical Primates : Field Studies and Conservation , R.J. orington and P.G. Helt ne (eds.), pp.10-19. National Academy of Sciences, Was hington, DC. Hernndez, A. y Daz, A. 2010. Estado preliminar pobla cional del mono nocturno ( Aotus sp. Humboldt 1812) en las comunidades indgenas siete de agosto y San Juan de Atacuari Puerto Nario, departamento de Amazonas, Colombia. Ibagu, Tolima: Universidad del Tolima. IUCN/SSC. 2013. Guidelines for Reintroductions and Other Conservation Translocations . Version 1.0. IUCN Species Survival Commission, Gland, Switzerland IUCN 2017. e IUCN Red List of reatened Species . Version 2017. . Down loaded on 14 September 2017. Janson, C. H. 2011. Reconciling rigor and range: observa tions, experiments, and quasi-experiments in eld Prima tology. Int . J . Primatol . 33(3): 520. Maldonado Rodrguez, . M. 2011. Trco de monos noc turnos Aotus spp. en la frontera entre Colombia, Per y Brasil: efectos sobre sus poblaciones silvestres y violacin de las regulaciones internacionales de comercio de fauna estipuladas por CITES. Rev. Acad. Colomb. Cienc. Exact. Fis. Nat. 35(135): 225. Maldonado, A., Shanee, S., Deer, T.R. y Roncancio, N. 2017. Aotus nancymaae . e IUCN Red List of reatened Species 2017: e.T41540A17923258. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/ IUCN.UK.2017-1.RLTS.T41540A17923258.en. Down loaded on 14 November 2017. Peres, C. A. 1999. General guidelines for standardizing li ne-transect surveys of tropical forest primates. Neotrop . Primates 7: 1. Primack, R. B. 2010. Essentials of Conservation Biology . Si nauer Associates, Sunderland, Mass., USA. Roncancio, N., Rojas, W. & Estevez, J. 2009. Densidad poblacional y tamao de grupo de Saguinus leucopus en Parches de Bosque en el Departamento de Caldas, Co lombia. Neotrop . Primates 15 (2): 63. Roncancio, N. 2012. Producto No. 4. Informe de avance con la revisin inicial de los protocolos de reincorporacin de ejemplares del gnero Aotus a la vida silvestre. Informe no publicado, Instituto Amaznico de Investigaciones Cientcas SINCHI, Leticia, Amazonas, Colombia. Struhsaker, T. T. 1981. Forest and primate conservation in East Africa. Afr. J. Ecol. 19(1-2): 99. Sutherland, W. J. 2000. e Conservation Handbook : Re search, Management and Policy . Wiley, Norwich, UK.

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37 omas, L., Buckland, S.T., Rexstad, E.A., Laake, J. L., Strindberg, S., Hedley, S. L., Bishop, J. R.B., Marques, T. A. y Burnham. K. P. 2010. Distance software: design and analysis of distance sampling surveys for estimating population size. J. Appl. Ecol. 47: 5. Wright, P. C. 1978. Home range, activity pattern, and ago nistic encounters of a group of Night Monkeys ( Aotus trivirgatus ) in Peru. Folia Primatol . 29(1): 43.

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38 FIRST RECORDS OF GASTROINTESTINAL PARASITES IN WOOLLY MONKEYS LAGOTHRIX LAGOTHRICHA IN COLOMBIA, FROM WILD, CAPTIVE AND REINTRODUCED INDIVIDUALS Camilo Quiroga-Gonzlez 1 , Elisa Jimnez 1 , Nelson F. Galvis 1 , Mnica A. Ramrez 1 Mario Ortiz 2 , Camila Gonzalez 2 and Pablo R. Stevenson 1 1 Laboratorio de Ecologa de Bosques Tropicales y Primatologa (LEBTYP). Departamento de Ciencias Biolgicas. Facultad de Ciencias. Universidad de los Andes Bogot, Colombia. E-mail:ca.quiroga158@uniandes.edu.co 2 Centro de Investigaciones en Microbiologa y Parasitologa Tropical (CIMPAT). Departamento de Ciencias Biolgicas. Facultad de Ciencias. Universidad de los Andes, Bogot, Colombia. E-mail:mario-or@uniandes.edu.co Abstract Interest about parasites in vertebrate populations during translocation and reintroduction programs is increasing; thus, a description of parasites in captivity infecting animals to be relocated is necessary. is study aimed to characterize the com munities of gastrointestinal parasites in woolly monkeys ( Lagothrix lagothricha ) from captive and wild individuals, as well as the change in parasite prevalence in four individuals during a reintroduction process. To accomplish this goal, we used a fecal otation technique to analyze the collected samples. In captivity, 95 % of the screened samples were infected with at least one parasite, while only 77 % of wild primate samples showed infection, indicating higher prevalence in captive vs. wild individuals. Overall, wild and captive woolly monkeys shared many groups of parasites (Strongylidae, Oxyuridae and Entamoebidae) and we found a trend of lower parasite prevalence after release in captive individuals. Our data showed a consistent dierence between captive and reintroduced individuals suggesting that variables related to diet, overcrowding and human presence may be the most important factors explaining parasite communities. Keywords: conservation ex-situ, woolly monkeys, nematodes, intestinal parasites. Resumen El inters sobre el impacto de los parsitos en las poblaciones de vertebrados durante los programas de translocacin y rein troduccin ha aumentado ltimamente; esto hace necesario una descripcin de los parsitos que infectan a los animales en cautiverio que van a ser reubicados. El objetivo de este estudio fue el de caracterizar las comunidades de parsitos gastroin testinales en monos churuco ( Lagothrix lagothricha ) de individuos cautivos y silvestres, as como el cambio en la prevalencia de parsitos en cuatro individuos durante un proceso de reintroduccin. Para lograr este objetivo, utilizamos una tcnica de otacin fecal para analizar las muestras colectadas. En cautiverio, el 95 % de las muestras examinadas estaban infectadas con al menos un parsito, mientras que solo el 77 % de las muestras de primates silvestres mostraron infeccin, lo que indica una mayor prevalencia en individuos en cautiverio frente a los silvestres. En general, los monos churuco salvajes y en cau tiverio compartieron muchos grupos de parsitos (Strongylidae, Oxyuridae y Entamoebidae) y se encontr una tendencia de menor prevalencia despus de la liberacin de los individuos. Nuestros datos mostraron una diferencia consistente entre individuos cautivos y reintroducidos, lo que sugiere que variables relacionadas con la dieta, hacinamiento y la presencia humana pueden ser los factores ms importantes que explican las comunidades de parsitos. Palabras clave: conservacin exsitu, churucos, nematodos, parsitos intestinales Introduction Primates are one of the most important taxonomic groups in terms of conservation challenges, due to the danger of extinction most of them face (Chinchilla et al., 2005; Es trada et al., 2017). Non-human primates are particularly susceptible to parasitic infections because they can get in fected from other animal parasites, in spite of not being the primary host (Johnson-Delaney, 2009). In addition, pri mates are vulnerable to parasitic infections due to the social structure, which facilitates their transmission (Freeland, 1983). Habitat fragmentation and population size can also compromise the population’s health and increase the prevalence and richness of parasites (Gillespie and Chap man, 2008; Pttker et al., 2008). at is the reason why the prevalence of parasites usually increases in smaller areas where the possibility of re-infection is higher caused by an unusual increase in primate crowding (Mller, 2007). is is the scenario in zoos and rescue centers, where high popu lation densities and poor sanitation favor high prevalence of parasites (Guerrero et al., 2012). Information about gastrointestinal parasites in Old-World primates is well known (Gillespie et al., 2005; Opara et al., 2010; Petrezelkova et al., 2010), on the contrary, in South America information gaps remain and an enormous

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39 sampling eort is needed (Hopkins and Nunn 2007). Woolly monkeys ( Lagothrix lagothricha ) are among the less well-known species and to our knowledge, in Colombia there are no studies describing gastrointestinal parasites either from wild or captive populations. ese primates are critically endangered according to IUCN (2008) due to hunting pressure and habitat fragmentation that have reduced the natural populations of this species to local extinction in some areas (Stevenson and Aldana, 2008). In this context, the aim of this study is to provide a rst characterization of gastrointestinal parasite communities in Colombian woolly monkeys ( Lagothrix lagothricha ) from captive and wild individuals, and to characterize the para site community in four reintroduced individuals. We rst evaluated if there were dierences in the prevalence of gas trointestinal parasites between captive and wild individuals to evaluate if they shared the same parasites. en, we com pared these results with parasites found in reintroduced individuals into the wild, to assess the potential parasite loss or gain after release. We expected a higher density of zoonotic parasites in captive individuals, given their prox imity to humans and their limited home range. Similarly, we expected a higher prevalence of parasites in captive pri mates compared to released ones as a result of changes in population density and diet. Methods Study Sites Fecal samples from captive primates were collected between June and November 2015 in two dierent enclosure sites in Colombia. e rst site was Fundacin Bioandina lo cated at Mesitas, Cundinamarca (4 34.603’’N, 74 27’ 3.944’’W). is captivity site is located at an altitude of 990 m a.s.l. with a mean annual precipitation of 1,561 mm, and temperature ranges between 17.3 – 26.8 C. (Fig. 1). Here we found ve individuals, two adult females, one adult male, one sub-adult female and one juvenile female belonging to two subspecies ( Lagothrix lagothicha lugens and Lagothrix lagothricha lagothricha ). e individuals were found in two small enclosures located side by side per mitting contact between them. e other site was Pereira`s Centro de Atencin y Valoracin (CAV), Risaralda (4 48’ 17.176’’N, 75 47’ 1.687’’W). is captivity site is located at an altitude of 1,411 m a.s.l. with a mean annual precipitation of 2,441 mm. Temperature ranges between 14.7 – 26.8 C (Fig. 1). Here we found four individuals, two adult males, one adult female, and one juvenile female, also from both subspecies. All the individuals were located in a big enclosure enriched with sticks and planks to en courage their locomotion. Samples from wild individuals were obtained between Sep tember 2010 to April 2013 from two groups of wild woolly monkeys ( L. l. lugens) inhabiting a pristine forest in Parque Nacional Natural Cueva de Los Guacharos (PNNCG), Huila, Colombia (1 33’ 0’’ N, 76 7’ 59.998’’ W). is National Park is located in a montane forest with an ex tension of 9,000 hectares with a mean altitude of 2,000 m a.s.l. and a mean annual precipitation of 3,100 mm; temperature ranges between 12 – 20 C (Fig. 1). Here we found two habituated woolly monkey groups varying in size from 18 to 27 individuals. Figure 1. Map showing the dierent study sites where primates were sampled. e shape of the gures corresponds to the three dierent conditions of the sampled individuals. Regarding reintroduced primates, fecal samples from two captive individuals were taken between March and July 2017 from a captivity site at Teruel’s CAV, Huila (2 49’ 53.93’’N, 75 50’ 0.775’’W). is captivity site is lo cated at an altitude of 910 m a.s.l. with a mean annual precipitation of 1635 mm; temperature ranges between 19.1 – 30.3 C (Fig. 1). e individuals shared a big en riched enclosure (260 m 3 ) with 10 other primates. ey were fed twice a day with a mixture of fruits and veg etables that does not correspond to their diet in natural habitats. Individuals were released in August 2017 in a biological corridor located at El Pensil, Huila (1 45’ 43.949’’N, 76 17’ 11.68’’W). is forest is located at a mean altitude of 1,850m a.s.l. with a mean annual pre cipitation of 2,284 mm, and temperature ranges between 12 – 20 C (Fig. 1). Fecal samples were collected from the moment of release through March 2018 . e other two individuals were sampled in captivity at Teruel between March of 2018 and November of the same year and re leased in a Biological Reserve located in San Martn, Meta (3 31’ 6.24’’N, 73 24’ 11.88’’ W). is release site is

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40 located at a mean altitude of 280 m a.s.l. and a mean annual precipitation of 2,513 mm; temperature ranges 25 – 28 C (Fig. 1). Fecal samples were obtained from the time of release through April 2019. Sample collection Fecal samples were collected immediately after defeca tion and to avoid environmental contamination, only 2 grams of primate feces not in direct contact with the ground were sampled in 15 ml Falcon tubes lled with 10 % formaldehyde. Tubes were shaken to maximize the contact surface between the sample and formaldehyde. For each sample, study site, date, time, individual name and sex were recorded. e samples were kept at room temperature until transport to Laboratorio de Ecologa de Bosques Tropicales y Primatologa (LEBTYP) at Uni versidad de Los Andes, Colombia where they were stored until processing. Sample processing Samples were processed at Centro de Investigaciones en Microbiologa y Parasitologa Tropical (CIMPAT) at Uni versidad de los Andes, Colombia. For parasite identica tion, we followed the fecal otation method suggested by Gillespie (2006), using a saline solution calibrated with a pycnometer at a specic gravity of 1.28. One gram of each preserved sample was placed in a 15 ml Falcon tube lled 2/3 with distilled water and the sample was homog enized. en the sample was manually centrifuged for 10 minutes, the supernatant was discarded, and the fecal matter was re-suspended with the saline solution lling the tube to form an inverted meniscus where a cover slip was placed. After centrifuging manually for 10 minutes, the cover slip was removed and analyzed under a micro scope using 4x, 10x and 40x magnication. Eggs, cysts and larvae were counted and measured with a microm eter. We used a drop of dilute Lugol’s iodine solution (20 %) to facilitate the identication of protozoan cysts. Photos of representative individuals were taken. Data analysis Information of parasite prevalence was dened as the num ber of samples infected with one parasite group divided by the total number of samples taken in each study site. We performed Chi-square analysis between the prevalence of each group of parasites to identify the dierence in parasite communities between study sites. Results A total of 185 samples were collected and analyzed. From these, 43 belonged to wild woolly monkeys, 41 to captive and 101 to reintroduced (56 taken when still in captivity and 28 after release into the wild at Pensil and 17 at San Martn). A great variety of gastrointestinal parasites was found: six Nematode families (Trichostrongylidae, Oxyuridae, Ancy lostomatidae, Ascarididae, Strongylidae and Trichinellidae), eggs belonging to the class Cestoda and Trematoda, and one protist belonging to the family Entamoebidae (Fig. 2) . In captive individuals at Mesitas and Pereira, we found that 95 % of the samples had at least one parasite individual (egg, cyst or larvae) and 90 % had polyparasitism. We identied ve groups of parasites: four members of the phylum Nema toda (Trichostrongylidae, Strongylidae, Trichinellidae and Oxyuridae) and one protist of the family Entamoebidae . Families with higher prevalence were Oxyuridae (83 % of samples in Mesitas), and Trichstrongylidae (80 % in Mesi tas and 88 % in Pereira). We found signicant dierences between samples taken from primates in captivity sites ( X2 = 76.1, df = 5, p < 0.01) due to the fact that Pereira was the only study site where family Trichinellidae was recorded . When prevalence of parasitic families between the two captivity sites was com pared, we only found signicant dierences in the Oxyruri dae, for which Mesitas had a greater prevalence ( X2 = 9.96, df = 1, p < 0.05) (Fig. 3). Figure 2. Gastrointestinal parasites found in captive and/or wild woolly monkeys. (A) Trichostrongylidae, (B) Oxyuridae, (C) Ancylostomatidae, (D) Ascarididae, egg without cortex (E) Ascarididae, (F) Strongylidae, (G) Trichinellidae, (H) Trema toda, (I) Cestoda, (J) Entamoebidae.

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41 Figure 3. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in woolly mon keys in each captive site. Mesitas (n = 24), Pereira (n = 17). Regarding wild woolly monkeys at PNNCG, we found that 77 % of the samples analyzed had at least one parasite individual. We identied ve groups of parasites: a protist from the family Entamoebidae , three nematode families (Oxyuridae, Ascarididae and Strongylidae) and one Ces tode. We found that 46 % of the samples had Helminths and 42 % Protists. When we evaluated the samples of the reintroduced indi viduals, we found eight groups of parasites, ve helminths (Trichostrongylidae, Oxyuridae, Ascarididae, Ancylostoma tidae and Strongylidae), one protist (Entamoebidae), one Trematode and one Cestode. In both reintroduction sites, we found signicant dierences between captive and released individuals (Pensil: X2 = 57.8, df = 8, p <0.01 and San Mar tn: X2 = 69, df = 8, p < 0.01) where a prevalence reduction was shown in almost all parasite groups. Based on this result we separated the samples in captive and released categories for further analysis. We found an evident reduction of posi tive samples for almost all nematodes ( X2 = 31.692, df = 8, p < 0.01) including families Trichostrongylidae, Oxyuridae, Ancylostomatidae and Ascarididae (Fig. 4). Figure 4. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in woolly monkeys in captive (n = 56) and released (n = 45) individuals. We observed that captive individuals had a higher prevalence of nematodes than wild and released ones but no dierences in the prevalence of protists and cestodes were found. Also, we found that trematodes were present in captive and re leased individuals but not in the wild (Table 1). Table 1. Prevalence (positive samples/total samples (*100)) of gastrointestinal parasites in captive individuals in Teruel, wild in dividuals at PNNCG and released individuals at Pensil and San Martn. Captive (n = 56) Wild (n = 43) Released (n = 45) Nematodes 91 % 46 % 45 % Protists 43 % 42 % 37 % Trematodes 4 % 0 % 2 % Cestodes 4 % 2 % 7 % Discussion For the rst time, gastrointestinal parasites infecting cap tive and wild Colombian woolly monkeys were studied. As expected, many of the parasite families found have been reported in the same primate genus (Michaud et al., 2003; Larraaga and Shanee, 2012; Pinto et al., 2013) but we found four new parasite records for these primates: Ent amoebidae, Trichostrongylidae, Trematoda and Cestoda. We found dierences between sites where primates were held in captivity since the family Oxyuridae had a higher prevalence in Mesitas compared to Pereira. is can be explained by the fact that these parasites are transmitted mainly by contact between individuals, and overcrowding in captivity can promote this behavior facilitating their transmission (Gonzlez-Hernndez et al., 2014). All para sites present in Mesitas and Pereira have been commonly reported in captivity sites or near urban areas in dierent primate species (Hasegawa et al., 2004; Soto-Caldern et

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42 al., 2016) and have been reported in humans, which may suggest possible zoonotic infections (Yamashita, 1963; Le gesse and Erko, 2004). Parasites found in captivity were similar to the ones found in the wild at PNNCG. ree of the ve parasite families found there (Strongylidae, Oxy uridae and Entamoebidae) were found in wild woolly mon keys with the exception of Trichinellidae and members of the Trichostrongylidae family that only appeared in captiv ity. Ascarididae and Cestoda were the parasites found in the wild that were absent in captivity. As for the reintroduced individuals, we found a tendency to reduction in parasite prevalence after being released. ese dierences between sites can be associated to higher rates of infection in the captivity sites due to overcrowding, since primates share the enclosure with other 10 individu als. e higher prevalence of family Trichostrongylidae, Oxyuridae, Ancylostomatidae and Ascarididae may be because these parasites are geohelminths (Bethony et al., 2006; Botero and Restrepo, 2015) and infect the primates when they come into contact with the oor. e presence of members of the Ascarididae family supports this idea, since these parasites need a maturation time in the oor before being infective (CDC, 2010). On the contrary, re leased individuals have better chances to explore higher for est strata and avoid contact with these parasites. e higher prevalence of Oxyuridae may be explained by the reasons we mentioned before that these parasites are transmitted mainly by contact between individuals. A similar situation has been reported in spider monkeys, where the number of grooming interactions was positively correlated to the presence of Strongyloides and Trichostrongylus (Rimbach et al., 2015). Fewer encounters with conspecics can then reduce the prevalence of parasites in released individuals when compared to those in captivity. Another factor that may be inuencing dierences in parasite prevalence is primate diet. Many authors have reported a negative relation between the consumption of some plants and parasitic infections (Human et al. 1997; Stoner and Gonzlez-Di Pierro 2006). Many of the plant families that primates consume in the wild and were not consumed in captivity belong to the families Moraceae, Rubiaceae, Araceae and Lauraceae, which have been found to have deworming eects (Waller et al. 2001; MacIntosh and Human 2010). ese plant families are consumed by woolly monkeys in high and low lands (Stevenson et al. 1994 and Ramirez et al. 2014), perhaps a switch on the diet in reintroduced individuals promoted a reduction in some parasite prevalence’s similar to the ones in wild individuals. Our data showed a consistent dierence between study sites suggesting that diet, overcrowding and human pres ence may be the most important factors explaining parasite communities in woolly monkeys in Colombia. We do not consider environmental variables to be playing an impor tant role, since captivity sites were dierent among them, but similar in parasite communities; the same tendency was found in wild and released individuals. Due to the fact that some parasites were found in captive and released individu als, but not in the wild ones, we support the idea of restor ing parasite-host balance before releasing the individuals as Armstrong and Seddon proposed (2008). To achieve this, it is convenient to reduce the number of individuals in an enclosure and limit the contact of the individuals with the ground to reduce infection rates and zoonotic infections. Additionally, it may be useful to provide the primates with deworming plants, mainly those common in the diet of wild woolly monkeys prior to reintroduction. Acknowledgments We would like to thank Camila Orozco, Tatiana Novoa and Santiago Yamaga for their help with sample collection. To all members of LEBTYP and CIMPAT for their support and collaboration. To Fundacin Bioandina and Pereiras CAV. To Cindy and Alvaro, members of the Teruels CAV for their help with the health of the individuals. To Cor poracin del Alto Magdalena (CAM) and CORMACARE NA for providing us with a place to carry out the rehabilita tion and reintroduction of the primates and the constant interest toward the project. is project was funded by Fundacin Alejandro ngel Escobar, Colciencias (Project code: 120465843684) and a teaching assistantship from the Faculty of Sciences at Universidad de los Andes. References Armstrong, D. P. and Seddon, P. J. 2008. Directions in re introduction biology. Trends Ecol. Evol. 23: 20. Bethony, J., Brooker, S., Albonico, M., Geiger, S. M., Lou kas, A., Diemert, D., and Hotez, P. J. 2006. Soiltransmitted helminth infections: ascariasis, trichuriasis, and hookworm. Lancet 367: 1521. Botero, D. and Restrepo, M., 2012. Parasitosis humanas . Quinta Ed. Corporacin para Investigaciones Biolgicas, Medelln. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2010. Website: https://www.cdc.gov/dpdx/ascariasis/index. html . Accessed 19 January 2019. Chinchilla, M., Guerrero, O., Gutierrez–Ezpeleta, G., San chez, R and Rodrguez, B. 2005. Parsitos intestinales en monos congo Alouatta palliata (Primates: Cebidae) de Costa Rica. Rev. Biol. Trop. 53: 437 Day, T. D., Waas, J. R., O’Connor, C. E., Carey, P. W., Matthews, L. R., and Pearson, A. J. 1997. Leptospiro sis in brushtail possums: is Leptospira interrogans serovar balcanica environmentally transmitted? J. Wildl. Dis . 33: 254. Estrada, A., Garber, P. A., Rylands, A. B., Roos, C., Fer nandez-Duque, E., Di Fiore, A., and Rovero, F. 2017. Impending extinction crisis of the world’s primates: Why primates matter. Sci. Adv. 3: 1. Freeland, W.J. 1983. Parasites and the coexistence of ani mal host species. Am. Nat . 2: 223.

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43 Gillespie, T. R., Greiner, E. C., and Chapman, C. A. 2005. Gastrointestinal parasites of the colobus monkeys of Uganda. J. Parasitol. 91: 569. Gillespie, T. R., and Chapman, C. A. 2008. Forest frag mentation, the decline of an endangered primate, and changes in host–parasite interactions relative to an un fragmented forest. Am. J. Primatol. : 222. Gillespie, T. R. 2006. Noninvasive assessment of gastroin testinal parasite infections in free-ranging primates. Int. J. Primatol. 27: 1129. Gonzlez-Hernndez, M., Rangel-Negrn, A., Schoof, V. A., Chapman, C. A., CanalesEspinosa, D., and Dias, P. A. D. 2014. Transmission patterns of pinworms in two sympatric congeneric primate species. Int. J. Primatol . 35: 445. Guerrero, M. F., Serrano-Martnez, E. E., Tantalen, V. M., Quispe, H. M., and Casas, V. G. 2012. Identicacin de parsitos gastrointestinales en primates no humanos del Zoolgico Parque Natural de Pucallpa, Per. Rev. Inves tig. Vet. Per 23: 469. Hasegawa, H., Ikeda, Y., de Jess Daz-Aquino, J., and Fukui, D. 2004. Redescription of two pinworms from the black-handed spider monkey, Ateles georoyi , with reestablishment of Oxyuronema and Buckleyenterobius (Nematoda: Oxyuroidea). Comp. Parasitol .71: 166. Hopkins, M. E. and Nunn, C. L. 2007. A global gap analy sis of infectious agents in wild primates. Divers. Distrib. 13: 561. Human, M. A. 1997. Current evidence for selffmedica tion in primates: a multidisciplinary perspective. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 104: 171. IUCN. 2008. Stevenson, P. R, Link A. Lagothrix lugens . IUCN Red List of reatened Species. Website: http:// www.iucnredlist.org/details/39926/0. Accessed 17 Janu ary 2019. Johnson-Delaney, C. A. 2009. Parasites of captive nonhu man primates. Vet. Clin. North Am. Exot. 12: 563 . Larraaga, J. S. and Shanee, S. 2012. Parasitos Gastrointes tinales en el Mono Choro Cola Amarilla ( Oreonax avi cauda ) y el Mono Nocturno Andino ( Aotus miconax ) en Amazonas, Peru. Neotrop. Primates. 19: 38. Legesse, M. and Erko, B. 2004. Zoonotic intestinal parasites in Papio anubis (baboon) and Cercopithecus aethiops (vervet) from four localities in Ethiopia. Acta Trop. 90: 231. MacIntosh, A. J. and Human, M. A. 2010. Topic 3: To ward understanding the role of diet in host–parasite in teractions: e case for Japanese Macaques. e Japanese Macaques. pp. 323 . Springer, Tokyo. Michaud, C., Tantalean, M., Ique, C., Montoya, E. and Gozalo, A. 2003. A survey for helminth parasites in fe ral New World nonfhuman primate populations and its comparison with parasitological data from man in the region. J. Med. Primatol. 32: 341. Mller, B. 2007. Determinants of the diversity of intestinal parasite communities in sympatric New World Primates ( Saguinus mystax, Saguinus fuscicollis, Callicebus cupreus ). Doctoral esis. Tierrztliche Hochschule Hannover, Hannover, Germany Opara, M. N., Osuji, C. T. and Opara, J. A. 2010. Gastro intestinal parasitism in captive animals at the Zoological Garden, Nekede Owerri, Southeast Nigeria. Ostrich . 1: 21. Petrnelkov, K. J., Hasegawa, H., Appleton, C. C., Hu man, M. A., Archer, C. E., Moscovice, L. R. and Kaur, T. 2010. Gastrointestinal parasites of the chimpanzee popu lation introduced onto Rubondo Island National Park, Tanzania. Am. J. Primatol. 72: 307. Pinto, H. A., Ferreira Junior, F. C., Mati, V. L. T. and Melo, A. L. D. 2013. Trypanoxyuris ( Paraoxyuronema ) lagothri cis (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) in Lagothrix cana (Primates: Atelidae) from Brazil. Rev. Bras. Parasitol. V. 22: 307. Pttker, T., MeyerfLucht, Y. and Sommer, S. 2008. Ef fects of fragmentation on parasite burden (nematodes) of generalist and specialist small mammal species in second ary forest fragments of the coastal Atlantic Forest, Bra zil. Ecol. Res. 23: 207. Ramrez, M. A., Galvis, N. F., Vargas, S. A., Lon, J. J., Cifuentes, E. F. and Stevenson, P. R. 2014. Seed disper sal by woolly monkeys in Cueva de los Gucharos Na tional Park (Colombia): an Amazonian primate dispers ing montane plants. High altitude primates . pp. 103. Springer, New York, NY. Rimbach, R., Bisanzio, D., Galvis, N., Link, A., Di Fiore, A. and Gillespie, T. R. 2015. Brown spider monkeys ( Ateles hybridus ): A model for dierentiating the role of social networks and physical contact on parasite trans mission dynamics. Philos. T. R. Soc. B . 370, doi:10.1098/ rstb.2014.0110. SotofCaldern, I. D., AcevedofGarcs, Y. A., lvarezfCar dona, J., HernndezfCastro, C. and GarcafMontoya, G. M. 2016. Physiological and parasitological implications of living in a city: the case of the whiteffooted tamarin ( Saguinus leucopus ). Am. J. Primatol . 78: 1272 . Stevenson, P. R. and Aldana, A. M. 2008. Potential eects of Ateline extinction and forest fragmentation on plant diversity and composition in the western Orinoco Basin, Colombia. Int. J. Primatol. 29: 365. Stoner, K. E. and Gonzlez-Di Pierro, A. 2006. Intestinal parasitic infections in Alouatta pigra in tropical rainforest in Lacandona, Chiapas, Mexico: Implications for behav ioral ecology and conservation. In: New Perspectives in the Study of Mesoamerican Primates: Distribution, Ecology, Behavior and Conservation , Estrada, A, Garber, P, Pavelka M. S. M and Luecka, L. (eds), pp. 215. Springer Press, New York. Waller, P. J., Bernes, G., amsborg, S. M., Sukura, A., Richter, S. H., Ingebrigtsen, K. and Hglund, J. 2001. Plants as de-worming agents of livestock in the Nordic countries: historical perspective, popular beliefs and pros pects for the future. Acta Vet. Scand. 42: 31. Yamashita, J. 1963. Ecological relationships between para sites and primates. Primates . 4: 1 .

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44 Stb A FUR RUBBING BEHAVIOUR IN FREE RANG ING BENI TITI MONKEYS PLECTUROCEBUS MODESTUS IN BOLIVIA Jess Martnez Freddy Zenteno-Ruiz Laura Moya Pamela Carvajal Robert Wallace Introduction Fur rubbing is a mammalian behaviour in which a foreign substance is vigorously rubbed over some parts of the body with hands or feet (Baker, 1996; Human, 1997; Paukner and Suomi 2012). is behaviour has been observed in Neotropical primate species using distinct substances such as plant parts or insects, and has been related to distinct functions. Health benets of fur rubbing were inferred as protection against mosquito blooms in rainy months and for healing wounds from fur rubbing observed in whitefaced capuchin monkeys ( Cebus capucinus ), as insecticid al – repellent and fungistatic properties were found in one of those plant species used ( Piper tuberculatum ; Human, 1997; Palacios et al., 2009; Bazn-Caldern et al., 2011). Repellent functions were also suggested for plants used in fur rubbing by robust capuchins, Sapajus apella (Paukner and Suomi, 2008). e repellent functions of fur rubbing seem valid when substances are spread over most of the individual’s body as was observed in white-faced capuchin monkeys ( C. capuci nus ; Baker, 1996). Nevertheless, Campbell (2000) related extensive fur rubbing behavior as a part of social interac tion in spider monkeys ( Ateles georoyi ), when they applied foreign substances on some parts of their bodies. Potential changes in olfactory cues between individuals after applying pungent substances to fur could increase aliative intra group interactions. However, after unexpected aggressive interactions were observed in captive capuchin monkeys ( Sapajus apella ) after fur rubbing behavior, Paukner and Suomi (2008, 2012) hypothesized that the medicinal pur poses of fur rubbing could be more relevant than group cohesion ones. Fur rubbing has also been observed in some titi monkey species. Individuals of Cheracebus torquatus rubbed fur from throat to chest with a small ball of wadded uniden tied leaves wetted with saliva (Deer, 2010). Similar behaviour was observed in Plecturocebus donacophilus us ing leaves of Piper tuberculatum (Ryan, 2011), a plant with insecticidal and fungicidal properties (Palacios et al., 2009; Bazn-Caldern et al., 2011). Recently, important eorts have been made to increase natural history knowl edge and promote conservation actions for Plecturocebus modestus , an Endangered titi monkey species endemic to Bolivia (Veiga et al., 2008; Martinez and Wallace, 2010, 2016; Wallace et al., 2013). Here we report fur rubbing using plants observed in individuals of two groups of P. modestus , during a behavioral study of the species. We provide details regarding plant species used, individu als involved, and seasonal variations in the frequency of fur rubbing, as well as attempt to elucidate the probable function of this behaviour. Methods We conducted our study at San Miguel cattle ranch locat ed in the southwestern portion of the Beni Department, Bolivia (13.49”S, 66.07”W). is site, selected according to available distributional information for Plec turocebus modestus (Felton et al., 2006; Martinez and Wal lace, 2007; Wallace et al., 2013), is in the Llanos de Moxos ecosystem characterized by a landscape dominated by a grassland matrix where forest patches are immersed (Han agarth, 1993). We selected two groups of P. modestus to be observed. e Maramacho group had four individuals (adult pair, one juvenile and one infant) inhabiting an area of large forest patches (>10 ha), and the Corral group had two adult individuals occurring in an area of small forest patches. We sampled the occurrence of unusual behaviours such as fur rubbing by means of ad libitum sampling (Altmann, 1974), registering the duration of each fur rubbing event. We observed the focal groups all day from sunrise to sunset for 10 days per month, during 12 months (July 2010 – June 2011) covering dry and wet seasons. We calculated abso lute frequencies and time accumulated in fur rubbing for each focal group and individual. Plant species used in fur rubbing were collected and voucher specimens were identi ed at the Bolivian Herbarium in La Paz. Results In all our observations, fur rubbing consisted of an individ ual harvesting leaves of a plant that were then chewed for a short time, before the monkey rubbed the chewed plant mixture against its throat and chest with repeated energetic vertical movements. Titi monkeys used both hands for this task and chewed the leaves several times while they sat upright on branches, looking ahead. Although the behav ioural display was similar between focal groups, the plant species used varied. Individuals of the Maramacho group used leaves of the herb Piper callosum (Piperaceae, collec tion number FZR-17816), while the Corral group used leaves of the vine Tynanthus schumannianus (Bignoniaceae, collection number FZR-17817). Leaves of both plant spe cies had a mint smell and were dropped after fur rubbing. ey were never eaten.

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45 Most of the fur rubbing observed was performed by the Corral group in the small forest patches (18 events, 73 minutes, on 8 days), and both adult individuals per formed this behaviour (Table 1). Fur rubbing was less frequent in the Maramacho group (3 events, 7 minutes, on 2 days) where only the adult male and juvenile female performed fur rubbing. Table 1. Accumulated time and frequency of fur rubbing for each individual of focal groups of Plecturocebus modestus (rows in bold cor respond to total time for each group). Group Individual Age Sex Time accumulated [min] (number of events) Total Rain Dry CORRAL Mandingo Adult Male 38(9) 31(7) 7(2) Natusha Adult Female 35(9) 35(9) 0(0) 73(18) 66(16) 7(2) MARAMACHO Timoteo Adult Male 4(2) 4(2) 0(0) Lita Juvenile Female 3(1) 3(1) 0(0) 7(3) 7(3) 0(0) Total 80(21) 73(19) 7(2) Observation time (hours) CORRAL 1143.8 582.8 561.0 MARAMACHO 1235.7 619.0 616.7 e adult male of the Maramacho group performed fur rubbing alone one time (15 % of the fur rubbing group time), and once just before the juvenile female (85 % of the accumulated group time). For the Corral group, most of the fur rubbing was performed by the adult pair simul taneously (5 of 8 days, 84.9 % of accumulated group fur rubbing time), on two days the male fur rubbed alone (9.6 % of fur rubbing time), and on one day the female fur rubbed alone (5.5 % of fur rubbing time). Titi mon keys performed fur rubbing separately, without any kind of body contact between them, even in those cases when two individuals were engaged in this activity in close proxim ity. Fur rubbing was observed almost exclusively in the wet season except two events involving the adult male of Corral group (9.6 % of accumulated group time, Table 1). No special situations were observed on the days when the individuals of Maramacho group performed fur rubbing. On two of the days when individuals of the Corral group performed fur rubbing, we observed the adult male groom ing the adult female, and on one day he tasted the female’s urine. However, grooming was commonly observed in this group (37 % of observation days) and although only three events of urine testing were observed during the study, none of these observations occurred just after fur rubbing; they occurred over a half an hour later. Discussion Plant species observed in fur rubbing by individuals of Plecturocebus modestus are used in traditional medicine by Amazonian people. Brazilian and Bolivian people prepare a tea or poultice with leaves and stem pieces of Piper callo sum to treat digestive and diuretic illnesses, and fungistatic, insecticidal, and antilarval properties found in this plant suggest its use as repellent (Souto et al., 2012; Silva et al., 2017; Bolivian Herbarium database). Similarly, tea made with fruits and stem pieces of Tynanthus schumannianus is traditionally used for treatment of diarrhea in Bolivia, while active compounds for treatment of malaria were also found in fruits of this vine with no apparent use as repel lent (Muoz et al., 2000; Cansian et al., 2015). is plant is used also to treat conjunctivitis and as women’s perfume (Bolivian Herbarium database). As Beni titi monkeys did not ingest the plants used in fur rubbing, some external function such as repellent seems feasible for P. callosum . Several primate species have sternal glands whose secretions are used for scent marking (Ewer, 1968). Spider monkey ( Ateles georoyi ) fur rubbing was related to scent mark ing, rubbing the chest against a substrate that seemed to stimulate secretions of sternal glands (Campbell, 2000). As scent marking shares diverse types of information about an individual (such as identity, condition, and social rank), fur rubbing could be related to social interactions through chemical communication (NRC, 1998). Scent marking us ing the sternal gland was reported for Plecturocebus moloch and Cheracebus torquatus , rubbing their chest on branches, although with no clear function (Moynihan, 1966; Kinzey, 1981). Chest rubbing seemed to help re-establish friendly relationships between individuals of captive C. torquatus af ter prolonged separation (Fernandez-Duque et al., 1997). e fact that we did not observe any scent marking be haviour nor prolonged separations of groups’ individuals

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46 linked to fur rubbing, discards the scent marking function for fur rubbing in our groups of Plecturocebus modestus . Capuchins and owl monkeys engage in social fur rubbing, with the participation of several individuals, using highly available rubbing materials such as mud, ants, or plant leaves, while solitary fur rubbing occurred with less abun dant materials such as owers or millipedes (Lynch et al., 2012). e same authors describe dierent levels of con tact between individuals, such as rubbing on each other, or individuals rubbing their body against another whom already applied the rubbing substance. In our study, indi viduals performed fur rubbing with plants separately. Ad ditionally, despite some coincidence of fur rubbing with grooming, there was not a direct relationship between the two behaviours that could suggest some social context for our fur rubbing observations. Chemical communication could also help reproductive success, as was observed in sifakas ( Propithecus verreauxi ). Males of this species with stained chests caused by sternal gland secretions had higher copulation rates than males with clean chests (Dall’Olio et al., 2012). e only link we could report between fur rubbing and mating was when the Corral group male drank female’s urine on the same day, but considerably later than the fur rubbing event. e assessment of females’ fertility by male individuals based on drinking their urine has been reported for other mammals including the owl monkey Aotus nancymaae (Wolovich and Evans, 2007). Nevertheless, one isolated observation does not provide strong evidence for a link between mating be havior and fur rubbing. Repellent functions, as well as usefulness against bacterial or fungal skin infections, were attributed to fur rubbing when substances were applied to almost the entire body, and especially during rainy season when risks of insects’ bites and infections are higher (Human, 1997). is was observed in capuchin monkeys such as Cebus capucinus (Baker 1996), Sapajus cay (Giudice and Pav, 2007), and S. apella , as well as distinct species of Aotus owl monkeys (Zito et al., 2003). In our case, the titi monkeys rubbed their throat and chest in a similar way as reported for Ch eracebus torquatus (Deer, 2010), Plecturocebus donacophi lus (Ryan, 2011), and P. oenanthe (Huashuayo-Llamocca and Heymann, 2017). e dense and long hair of titi mon keys, including P. modestus (Lnnberg, 1939; Martinez et al., 2013), would help prevent access to skin for biting in sects, except for ventral zones with shorter and less dense hair, probably more vulnerable to insect bites. e marked occurrence of our fur rubbing observations during the wet season corresponds with the period of higher risk of in sect bites due to increase of insect abundances (Human, 1997). Moreover, our focal groups occurred in ecotones of forest and savannahs with higher insect diversity than sin gle habitats, including mosquito species that can be vectors of tropical diseases (ongsripong et al., 2013). It is likely that a high abundance of mosquitos or other biting insects could be promoting the need of a repellent. erefore, our observations of P. modestus treating their most vulnerable body areas with plant substances during the riskiest insect bite months suggest repellent as the most likely function of fur rubbing for this species. We presented data on an uncommon behaviour observed in wild individuals of Plecturocebus modestus . Although we did not determine a conclusive function of fur rubbing, we provide valuable considerations for further research on the ecology of this endemic and threatened primate. Acknowledgements We would like to thank the Wildlife Conservation Society, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, Primate Con servation Inc., Margot Marsh Biodiversity Foundation, the BP Conservation Leadership Program and, the Conserva tion International Primate Action Fund for their contin ued nancial support. anks to the National Director ate for the Protection of Biodiversity for help in acquiring necessary research permits, to the Bolivian Herbarium for providing access to reference plant collections, as well as the collaboration of the Municipality of Santa Rosa del Yacuma, and especially the Nogales cattle ranches for access to the study sites. Finally, we acknowledge the wonderful support of our eld assistants Edson (Kayo) Gonzales and Eduardo (Lalo) Fernandez, as well as Vilma Hidalgo and volunteers who helped during eldwork. Jess Martnez , Wildlife Conservation Society, Casilla 3-35181 SM., San Miguel, La Paz, Bolivia. E-mail: < jmarti nez@wcs.org>, Freddy Zenteno-Ruiz , Wildlife Conserva tion Society, Casilla 3-35181 SM., San Miguel, La Paz, Bolivia and Herbario Nacional de Bolivia, Instituto de Ecologa, Cota Calle 27 – Campus Universitario, Casilla 10077 La Paz, Bolivia, Laura Moya , Herbario Nacional de Bolivia, Instituto de Ecologa, Cota Calle 27 – Cam pus Universitario, Casilla 10077 La Paz, Bolivia, Pamela Carvajal , Wildlife Conservation Society, Casilla 3-35181 SM., San Miguel, La Paz, Bolivia and, Robert Wallace , Wildlife Conservation Society, Casilla 3-35181 SM., San Miguel, La Paz, Bolivia, Wildlife Conservation Society, 185th Street and Southern Boulevard, Bronx, New York, 10460, U.S.A. References Altmann, J. 1974. Observational study of behaviour: sam pling methods. Behaviour 49:227-265. Baker, M. 1996. Fur rubbing: use of medicinal plants by capuchin monkeys ( Cebus capucinus ). Am. J. Primatol . 38:263. Bazn-Caldern, J., Ventura-Flores, R., Kato, M. J., RojasIdrogo, C., and Delgado-Paredes, G. E. 2011. Actividad insecticida de Piper tuberculatum Jacq. sobre Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) y Anopheles pseudopunctipennis Tehobal (Diptera: Culicidae). An. Biol . 33:135.

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47 Campbell, C. J. 2000. Fur rubbing behavior in free-rang ing black-handed spider monkeys ( Ateles georoyi ) in Panama. Am. J. Primatol . 51: 205. Cansian, F. C., Merino, F. J. Z., Dias, J. F. G., Zanin, S. M. W., Miguel, O. G., and Miguel, M. D. 2015. Chemical view and studies related to species from ge nus Tynanthus (Bignoniaceae). Braz. J. Pharm. Sci . 51: 515. Dall’Olio, S., Norscia, I., Antonacci, D., and Palagi, E. 2012. Sexual signalling in Propithecus verreauxi : male “chest badge” and female mate choice. PLoS ONE . 7(5): e37332 [doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0037332]. Deer, T. 2010. Historia natural de los primates colom bianos (2 edicin). Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Bogot. Ewer, R. F. 1968. Ethology of mammals . Springer Science+Business Media, LCC. New York. Felton, A., Felton, A. M., Wallace, R. B., and Gmez, H. 2006. Identication, distribution and behavioral observations of the titi monkeys Callicebus modestus Lnnberg, 1939 and Callicebus olallae Lnnberg, 1939. Primate Conserv . 20: 41. Fernandez-Duque, E., Mason, W. A., and Mendoza, S. P. 1997. Eects of duration of separation on responses to mates and strangers in the monogamous titi monkey ( Callicebus moloch ). Am. J. Primatol . 43: 225. Giudice, A. M., and Pav, R. 2007. Cebus paraguayanus in zoos: the spontaneous expression of species-specic behaviors. Neotrop. Primates . 41: 65. Hanagarth, W. 1993. Acerca de la geologa de las sabanas de Beni en el norte de Bolivia . Instituto de Ecologa. La Paz. Huashuayo-Llamocca, R., and Heymann, E. W. 2017. Fur-rubbing with Piper leaves in the San Martin titi monkey, Callicebus oenanthe . Primate Biol . 4: 127. Human, M. A. 1997. Current evidence of self-medica tion in primates: a multidisciplinary perspective. Yearb. Phys. Anthropol . 40: 171. Kinzey, W. G. 1981. e titi monkeys, genus Callicebus . In: Ecology and Behavior of Neotropical Primates, Vol. 1 , A. F. Coimbra-Filho, and R. A. Mittermeier (eds.), pp.240–276. Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, Rio de Janeiro. Lnnberg, E. (1939). Notes on some members of the ge nus Callicebus . Arkiv fr zoology . 31: 1. Lynch-Alfaro, J. W., Matthews, L., Boyette, A. H., Mac Farlan, S. J., Phillips, K. A., Faltico, T., Ottoni, E., Verderane, M., Izar, P., Schulte, M., Melin, A., Fedigan, L., Janson, C., and Alfaro, M. E. 2012. Anointing vari ation across wild capuchin populations: a review of ma terial preferences, bout frequency and anointing social ity in Cebus and Sapajus . Am. J. Primatol . 74: 299. Martinez, J, and Wallace, R. B. 2007. Further notes on the distribution of endemic Bolivian titi monkeys, Cal licebus modestus and Callicebus olallae . Neotrop. Pri mates . 14: 47. Martinez J, Wallace RB. 2010. Pitheciidae. In: Distribu cin, Ecologa y Conservacin de los Mamferos Medianos y Grandes de Bolivia , R. B. Wallace, H. Gmez, Z. R. Porcel, and D. I. Rumiz (eds.), pp.305. Centro de Ecologa Difusin Simn I. Patio, Santa Cruz de la Sierra. 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Insecticidal activity of Piper es sential oils from the Amazon against the re ant Sole nopsis saevissima (Smith) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Neotrop. Entomol . 41: 510. ongsripong, P., Green, A., Kittayapong, P., Kapan, D., Wilcox, B., and Bennett, S. 2013. Mosquito vec tor diversity across habitats in Central ailand en demic for dengue and other arthropodborne diseases. PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis . 7: e2507 [doi:10.1371/journal. pntd.0002507]. Veiga, L. M., Wallace, R. B., and Martinez, J. 2008. Cal licebus modestus . In: IUCN, editors. IUCN Red List of reatened Species. Version 2013.1. Website: http.// www.iucnredlist.org. Accessed 25September 2017.

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48 Wallace, R. B., Martinez, J., Lpez-Strauss, H., Barreta, J., Reinaga, A., and Lpez, L. 2013. Conservation chal lenges facing two threatened endemic titi monkeys in a naturally fragmented Bolivian forest. In: Primates in fragments: complexity and resilience , L. K. Marsh, and C. A. Chapman (eds.), pp.493. Springer Science, New York. Wolovich, C. K., and Evans, S. 2007. Sociosexual behav ior and chemical communication of Aotus nancymaae . Int. J. Primatol . 28: 1299. Zito, M., Evans, S., and Weldon, P. J. 2003. Owl mon keys ( Aotus spp.) self-anoint with plants and millipedes. Folia Primatol . 74: 159. GEOGRAPHICAL AND ALTITUDINAL RANGE EXTENSION OF WHITEBELLIED SPIDER MON KEYS ATELES BELZEBUTH IN THE NORTH ERN ANDES OF COLOMBIA Victoria Andrea Barrera Camila Valds Cardona Luisa Mesa Sebastian Nossa Andr s Link Introduction e geographic distribution of white-bellied spider mon keys ( Ateles belzebuth ) has been debated extensively, and there is no consensus on the historical continuity or dis continuity of its wild populations. Currently, white-bellied spider monkeys are known to have a disjunct distribution located across three regions: [1] the western piedmont of the Eastern Andes and the lowland rainforests of Colom bia, [2] the forests in western Amazonia in Ecuador and Peru, as well as from [3] southern Venezuela and north western Brazil (Fig. 1). As mentioned by the IUCN Red List Assessment: “e distribution of this species is not well known and dees easy description” (Link et al. , 2019). In Colombia, white-bellied spider monkeys are present in the lowland rainforests of Tinigua and Macarena Na tional Parks, especially near the piedmont of the Eastern Andes. Some populations also occur in Guaviare and Caquet departments, and a few “anecdotal” records have been documented in south-eastern Colombia. Nonethe less, Deer (2003) proposed that this handful of records in south-eastern Colombia actually correspond to isolated in dividuals, including two spider monkeys that were hunted by local persons given its rarity in the region. ese spider monkeys are not present across a broad area of the Ama zonian rainforests in Colombia (e.g. Amazonas depart ment), nor are they found in northern Ecuador, north of the Cuyabeno River. us, based on reliable records, it seems that populations of white-bellied spider monkeys are divided into at least three disjoint populations (Fig. 1). e biogeographical, ecological and even anthropological driv ers of this discontinuous distribution are still unknown. Figure 1. Geographical distribution of Ateles belzebuth (IUCN 2019). Shadow denotes reported populations and grey symbol denotes the northern population newly registered in this study. e white-bellied spider monkey is classied as Endan gered by the IUCN Red List (Link et al. , 2019) mainly due to the loss of habitat and the estimated reduction of its populations during the last decades. e demographic dy namics of white-bellied spider monkeys have been studied in the Ecuadorian and Colombian Amazon (Shimooka et al., 2008; Link et al. 2018) and it is clear that they have one of the slowest development cycles amongst living primates, with extended periods of infancy and sexual immaturity (Link et al., 2018). It has been proposed that their slow life history variables partly account for their high vulner ability to anthropogenic threats (Michalski & Peres, 2005). White-bellied spider monkeys also have long periods of development. Females begin reproducing only when they are approximately 7 – 9 years, most often have singletons (but see Link et al 2006), and have inter-birth intervals of approximately 30 – 36 months (Shimooka et al., 2008; Link et al., 2018). Spider monkeys also prefer undisturbed forests where they use large areas (160 – 400 hectares) to search for food, especially ripe eshy fruits (Di Fiore et al., 2008). Spider monkeys’ large body size makes them pre ferred hunting items for many indigenous and local com munities, posing a strong threat on their wild populations (Franzen, 2008). Here, we report on a previously unknown population of white-bellied spider monkeys living in the highland forests in the Eastern slope of the Eastern Andes in Colombia, in the departments of Casanare and Boyac. is popula tion accounts for the northern-most record of white-bellied spider monkeys in the Andes Piedmont in Colombia, and is present in highland forests that extend its altitudinal range to over 1,800 m. a.s.l. Given that in the Colom bian Andes during the last centuries there has been a dra matic transformation of natural forests into agricultural elds and pastures for cattle ranching (Etter and van Wyn gaarden, 2000; Armenteras et al., 2011), it is possible to

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49 speculate on the historical presence of a large and continu ous population that might have been connected to those extant populations in northwestern Amazonia through a lowland and highland forest corridor west of the natural “Colombian and Venezuelan Llanos” savannas. We discuss the implications of these new records in light of the urgent need of conservation for these endangered primates in the Neotropics. Methods Study area. e forests where the initial sightings of white-bellied spi der monkeys took place in 2014 are located in the Eastern slope of the Eastern Andes cordillera, in the municipal ity of El Yopal Corregimiento El Morro, vereda Marro qun (5 29.938’N, 72 26.818’W) (Fig. 2), in Casanare Department. In 2018, we found other groups of whitebellied spider monkeys in forest fragments in the same broader region, specically in the municipality of La Paya – veredas Guayabal de la Pea, La Unin and Milagros (5 35.626’N, 72 21.218’W), in the department of Boyac. e two localities are roughly 15 km apart. According to Holdridge (1979) the area is considered as a premontane very humid forest and is characterized by steep mountains that oscillate between 1,100 and 2,200 m. a.s.l. Precipitation patterns are unimodal, with a rainy sea son from April through November, and a dry season from December through March. Annual rainfall ranges between 2,000 – 4,500 mm and average temperature oscillates be tween 12C – 18C (IGAC, 1999). e landscape is com prised by a matrix of pastures devoted to cattle ranching, subsistence agricultural plots and remnants of secondary and primary forests. Most forests have been selectively logged for timber but otherwise remain intact, although deforestation takes place in the broader region; between 2014 -2016, 114 ha of primary and secondary forests were cleared in the Paya alone (Pinza, unpublished data). How ever, since 2018, a payment for ecosystem services (PES) strategy is being implemented through Voluntary Conser vation Agreements, where the owners of the forests receive monetary incentives from an oil company that operates down at the basin, as an environmental compensation, to preserve the forest for at least three years. Characterization of the population of white-bellied spider monkeys in Casanare and Boyac We began to collect systematic data on the population of white-bellied spider monkeys at Yopal in 2018 and at Paya in 2019 (Fig. 2), as part of a regional on-going initiative to protect and conserve Ateles belzebuth in the premon tane forests of the north-eastern Andes. We conducted population surveys at El Yopal in order to estimate primate population densities following the line transect methods proposed by Peres (1993) and Buckland et al. (1993). At Paya, we conducted ad libitum surveys in the forests during January and February in 2019 and conducted line transect surveys from April to September of the same year. For ev ery visual observation of white-bellied spider monkeys we recorded the time of day, the number of individuals with age and sex categories whenever possible, and the location using a hand-held Garmin GPSMAP 64s Topo COL 100K GPS Handheld Receiver with 2.6-Inches Blacklit Display. Additionally, we conducted semi-structured interviews with locals in order to obtain information on the presence or absence of white-bellied spider monkeys in the dier ent forest fragments in the broader region. We also asked for more detailed information (whenever possible) on the number of groups/subgroups present, specic behaviors and vocalizations, or other information about the species. Figure 2. Records of Ateles belzebuth at Paya, Boyac. Circles de note records from ad libitum surveys from January to February 2019; Triangles denote records from line transect surveys from April to September 2019. Results During the initial surveys (July to October 2018) at the municipality of Yopal we were unable to visually record the presence of Ateles belzebuth , however we were able to record several long-distance vocalizations, thus conrming their presence in the area. Moreover, the interviewees conrmed the presence of white-bellied spider monkeys in the adja cent forest fragments, and from the information gathered during these interviews we could infer the presence of at least two subgroups of around six individuals in dier ent parts of the forest as well as solitary females traveling through the fragments, as expected given the high degree of ssion-fusion dynamics described for the genus Ateles (Symingon, 1990; Aureli and Schaner, 2008) . On the other hand, at Paya (January to March and April to September 2019) we obtained 56 sightings of subgroups of Ateles belzebuth in 170 ha of continuous forest (Appendix 1). e subgroups ranged in size from 1 to 9 individuals with a mean subgroup size of 3.8 individuals (SD = 2.5) (Appendix 1). is matches the information given by the peasants, who had seen groups between 2 and 5 individuals of Ateles belze buth in both fragments, and closely resembles the average

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50 subgroup size of other populations of white-bellied spider monkeys in lowland forests (Link & Di Fiore, 2013). In both localities, locals described two vocalizations: a longdistance call and a “barking” or “repeated bark” alarm call, previously described for several species of spider monkeys (Eisenberg, 1976; Len & Link, 2013). rough hearing long-distance vocalizations, we were able to conrm the presence of Ateles belzebuth at Yopal, and to locate the sub groups during the ad libitum and transect surveys at Paya. Discussion e distribution of white bellied spider monkeys has been a matter of debate, given the current discontinuity between populations found on the eastern slope of the eastern An des cordillera and in the Amazon rainforests (Link et al., 2019). is study adds to this debate by documenting the northernmost populations of Ateles belzebuth in the Andes, and extending the distribution of this taxon for approxi mately 130 km from the locations of specimens collected in 1920s and 1950s in the departments of Cundinamarca and Meta, respectively (Fig. 2). Also, these records expand the altitudinal range for white-bellied spider monkeys from 1,300 m. a.s.l. (Hernandez-Camacho & Cooper, 1976) to 1,800 m. a.s.l. is geographical and altitudinal expansion poses an additional question about the continuity of these recently recorded populations with those in northwestern Amazonia in Colombia, and adds to the complexity of its current geographical distribution. e biogeography of spider monkeys ( Ateles spp .) has been largely explained by the separation of major clades due to riverine and mountain barriers (Collins & Dubach 2000; Morales-Jimnez et al. 2015). Nonetheless, these northern populations of white-bellied spider monkeys are currently located about 200 km south of records of brown spider monkeys ( Ateles hybridus ) with no evident geographical barriers between them. In the 1960s there is a record of Ateles hybridus in Cucuta, Norte de Santand er department, Colombia (see Deer, in press), and cur rently there is a population of brown spider monkeys at Capar, in Venezuela (Aliaga-Samanez et al., 2017) (Fig 3). us, populations of both taxa might be currently in a process of range expansion (and have not reached a contact zone), or might have occupied these areas and have been locally extirpated elsewhere except for limited current residual populations. e status of white-bellied spider monkeys in the north ern Andes of Colombia is largely unknown and eorts should be made to better understand the size of this high land population, in order to plan successful conservation strategies. Mountain forests in Colombian Andes have been heavily degraded during the last centuries (Etter and van Wyngaarden, 2000), and the broader region where white bellied spider monkeys have been recently record ed in the Andes has high levels of forest fragmentation. us, understanding how common or rare is the presence of Ateles belzebuth in these forest fragments might drive conservation strategies focused on a few fragments or, in restoring connectivity between isolated populations, amongst other conservation actions. Studies on the ecol ogy and behavior of Ateles belzebuth in highland forests are urgently needed to better understand the ecological exibility of these endangered primates, as most of the information on the species has been recorded on popu lations in lowland Amazonian forests (Stevenson et al., 2000; Link et al., 2018). Figure 3. Records of Ateles belzebuth (1, 2, 5, 6) and A. hybridus (3,4) in Colombia and Venezuela. Circles (5, 6) show this study data at Casanare and Boyac; Triangles show literature reports of nearest populations of A. hybridus and, Squares show literature re ports of A. belzebuth . 1. Mambita, Cundinamarca, [N 4.08112, W-73.6705],1923, AMNH76784, AMNH62815. 2. Vil lavicencio, Acacas, Meta, [N3.2285, W-73.6075], 1956, FMNH85816. 3. Capar, Venezuela, [N7 25.3, W-70.7166], 2014, direct observation, 4. Ccuta, rio del Oro,[N7 53.4963, W-72 30.102], 1965, ICN1033. In conclusion, the record of a new population of whitebellied spider monkeys living in the highland forests of the northern Andes of Colombia creates the need to prioritize urgent conservation actions to study and better understand spider monkey evolutionary history and behavioral ex ibility, that allows them to adapt to highland ecosystems. Ateles may well represent some of the most important seed dispersers (see Link & Di Fiore, 2006; Dew et al., 2008) for these mountain forests, and may be playing a crucial role in the maintenance of the structure and composition of these threatened ecosystems (Link & di Fiore, 2006). Finally, given the high vulnerability of spider monkeys to anthropogenic pressure, spider monkeys can be used as agship species; focusing conservation eorts on their wild population can drive indirect conservation of a large bio diverse ecosystem in the global biodiversity Hotspot of the Northern Andes in the Neotropics.

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51 Appendix. Visual records of Ateles belzebuth at Paya, Boyac, January to September 2019. Date Coordinates Altitude (m) Group size 21/01/2019 N5 36.262’ W-72 20.907’ 1425 3 22/01/2019 N5 36.373’ W-72 20.998’ 1610 3 23/01/2019 N5 36.282’ W-72 20.940’ 1361 7 24/01/2019 N5 36.232’ W-72 20.910’ 1329 3 25/01/2019 N5 36.228’ W-72 20.853’ 1355 4 26/01/2019 N5 36.268’ W-72 21.050’ 1460 6 28/01/2019 N5 35.635’ W-72 20.962’ 1218 5 29/01/2019 N5 36.113’ W-72 20.897’ 1311 3 31/01/2019 N5 36.295’ W-72 20.908’ 1466 2 1/02/2019 N5 36.297’ W -72 20.898’ 1460 1 29/04/19 N5 36.606’ W -72’ 1836 4 29/04/19 N5 36’ W -72’ 1833 1 29/04/19 N5 36’ W -72’ 1794 1 14/05/19 N5 36.413’ W -72 20.882’ 1547 3 17/05/19 N5 36.005’ W -72 20.624’ 1576 3 17/05/19 N5 36.005’ W -72 20.624’ 1576 3 17/05/19 N5 36.005’ W -72 20.624’ 1576 3 17/05/19 N5 36.005’ W -72 20.624’ 1576 3 21/05/19 N5 35.780’ W -72 21.297’ 1453 2 21/05/19 N5 35.969’ W -72 21.336’ 1608 2 24/05/19 N5 36.335’ W -72 21.180’ 1734 4 28/05/19 N5 36.049’ W -72 21.277’ 1593 1 28/05/19 N5 36.190’ W -72 21.220’ 1602 3 6/06/19 N5 36.325’ W -72 21.180’ 1690 1 15/06/19 N5 35.379’ W -72 21.560’ 1635 4 26/06/19 N5 35.313’ W -72 21.574’ 1611 1 2/07/19 N5 36.203’ W -72 21.197’ 1658 6 16/07/19 N5 W -72.35986 1388 2 17/07/19 N5 35.903’ W -72 21.491’ 1690 8 17/07/19 N5 35.804’ W -72 21.584’ 1740 1 17/07/19 N5 35.806’ W -72 21.596’ 1759 1 23/07/19 N5 35.338’ W -72 21.648’ 1508 2 30/07/19 N5 35.885’ W -72 21.466’ 1668 8 30/07/19 N5 35.867’ W -72 21.502’ 1693 9 31/07/19 N5 35.867’ W -72 21.490’ 1687 3 31/07/19 N5 35.905’ W -72 21.474’ 1687 9 4/08/19 N5 35.866’ W -72 21.503’ 1694 7 26/08/19 N5 35.831’ W -72 21.029’ 1275 1 26/08/19 N5 36.061’ W -72 21.203’ 1548 1 26/08/19 N5 35.902’ W -72 21.469’ 1684 4 29/08/19 N5 35.669’ W -72 21.567’ 1734 6 29/08/19 N5 35.588’ W -72 21.477’ 1641 3 30/08/19 N5 35.480’ W -72 21.521’ 1579 1 30/08/19 N5 35.481’ W -72 21.521’ 1579 5 30/08/19 N5 35550’ W -72.582’ 1683 5 3/09/19 N5 35.906’ W -72 21.489’ 1699 1

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52 Date Coordinates Altitude (m) Group size 3/09/19 N5 35.767’ W -72 21.024’ 1254 3 4/09/19 N5 35.562’ W -72 21.574’ 1723 7 5/09/19 N5 35.528’ W -72 21.562’ 1684 9 6/09/19 N5 35.484’ W -72 21.565’ 1670 9 6/09/19 N5 35.734’ W -72 21.555’ 1774 3 13/09/19 N5 35.338’ W -72 21.604’ 1617 6 13/09/19 N5 35.690’ W -72 21.564’ 1749 3 Victoria Andrea Barrera , Asociacin de Becarios del Casanare, E-mail: , Camila Valds Cardona , Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Luisa Mesa , Universidad Nacional de Co lombia, Sebastian Nossa , Fundacin Universitaria del Trpico Americano y Andrs Link , Departamento de Ciencias Biolgicas, Universidad de Los Andes, Bogot, Colombia. Acknowledgements We are grateful to the families Hernndez, Fernndez, Corredor-Cachay , and Cachay-Rodriguez for their hospi tality and for allowing us into their properties to carry out the surveys; to Rubiel Fernndez, Miguel Garcs, Bey er Catao, Prspero Cachay, Solis Cepeda and Rosario Cachay for their assistance with the eld work; to all the community from Guayabal de La Pea and La Unin for welcoming us in their territory; and to the Asociacin de Becarios de Casanare (ABC) for the management of the project. We also thank Hugo Lpez-Arvalo and Pablo Stevenson for their advice and Pedro Martinez for the maps. Equion Energa Limited and ABC nanced this research. References Armenteras, D., Rodrguez, N., Retana, J. and Morales, M. 2011. Understanding deforestation in montane and lowland forests of the Colombian Andes. Reg Environ Chang. 11(3): 693. Aureli, F. and Schaner, C. 2008. Social interactions, social relationships and the social system of spider monkeys. In: Spider Monkeys: Behavior, Ecology, and Evolution of the genus Ateles, Campbell, C. J. (ed.), pp. 236. Cam bridge University Press, New York. Buckland, S. T., Anderson, D. R., Burnham, K. P. and Laake, J. L. 1993 Distance Sampling: Estimating Abun dance of Biological Populations . Chapman and Hall, London. Collins, A. and Dubac, J. 2000. Biogeographic and eco logical forces responsible for speciation in Ateles. Int. J. Primatol. 21: 421 Deer, T. R. 2003. Primates de Colombia . Conservacin In ternacional, Bogot D. C. Dew, J. L. 2008. Spider monkeys as seed dispersers. In: Spi der Monkeys: Behavior, Ecology, and Evolution of the genus Ateles, Campbell, C. J. (ed.), pp.155. Cambridge University Press, New York. Di Fiore, A., Link, A. and Dew, L. 2008. Diets of wild spider monkeys. In: Spider Monkeys: Behavior, Ecology, and Evolution of the genus Ateles, Campbell, C. J. (ed.), pp. 81. Cambridge University Press, New York. Eisenberg, J. F. 1976. Communication Mechanisms and Social Integration in the Black Spider Monkey, Ateles fus ciceps robustus , and Related Species. Smithson. Contrib. Zool. 213: 1. Etter, A. and van Wyngaarden, W. 2000. Patterns of land scape transformation in Colombia, with emphasis in the Andean region. Ambio . 29(7): 432 Franzen, M. 2006. Evaluating the sustainability of hunt ing: a comparison of harvest proles across three Hua orani communities. Environ. Conserv. 33 (1): 36. Hernndez-Camacho, J. and Cooper, R. W. 1976. e nonhuman primates of Colombia. In: R. W. orington, Jr. and P. G. Heltne (eds.), Neotropical Primates: Field Studies and Conservation , pp. 35. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D. C., USA. Holdridge, L. R. 1979. Ecologa basada en zonas de vida . Instituto Interamericano de Ciencias Agrcolas, San Jos. IGAC. 1999. Casanare, caractersticas geogrcas. Instituto Geogrco Agustn Codazzi (IGAC), Bogot D.C. Len, J. y Link, A. 2013. Repertorio vocal de los monos araa caf ( Ateles hybridus ). En: Primates Colombianos en Peligro de Extincin , Deer, T. R., Stevenson, P. R., Bue no, M. L. y Guzmn-Caro, D. L. (eds.), pp. 281. Asociacin Primatolgica Colombiana, Bogot D. C. Link, A., Palma, A. C., Velez, A. and de Luna, A.G. 2006. Costs of twins in free-ranging white-bellied spider mon keys ( Ateles belzebuth belzebuth ) at Tinigua National Park, Colombia. Primates. 47: 131. Link, A. and Di Fiore, A. 2006. Seed dispersal by spider monkeys and its importance in the maintenance of neo tropical rain-forest diversity. J. Trop. Ecol . 22: 235. Link, A., Milich, K. and Di Fiore, A. 2018. Demography and life history of a group of white-bellied spider mon keys ( Ateles belzebuth ) in western Amazonia. Am. J. Pri matol . e22899

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53 Link, A., Muniz, C., Rylands, A. B., Mourth, ., Cornejo, F. M., Urbani, B., Mittermeier, R. A., Stevenson, P. R., Palacios, E., Boubli, J., Shanee, S., de la Torre, S. and Moscoso, P.2019. Ateles belzebuth .e IUCN Red List of reatened Species2019: e.T2276A17928557. http:// dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.20192.RLTS. T2276A17928557.en .Downloaded on 22 September 2019. Michalski, F. and Peres, C. A. 2005. Anthropogenic deter minants of primate and carnivore local extinctions in a fragmented forest landscape of southern Amazonia. Biol. Conserv. 124: 383. Morales-Jimnez, A. L., Disotell, T., Di Fiore, A. 2015. Revisiting the phylogenetic relationships, biogeography, and taxonomy of spider monkeys (genus Ateles ) in light of new molecular data. Mol. Phylogen. Evol. 82 : 467. Peres, C. A. 1993. Structure and spatial organization of an Amazonian terra rme forest primate community. J. Trop. Ecol . 9: 259. Shimooka, Y., Campbell, C.J., Di Fiore, A., Felton, A. M., Izawa, K., Link, A., Nishimura, A., Ramos-Fernndez, G. y Wallace, R. B. 2008. Demography and group com position of Ateles. In: Spider Monkeys: Behavior, Ecology, and Evolution of the genus Ateles, Campbell, C. J. (ed.), pp.329. Cambridge University Press, New York. Stevenson, P. R., Quiones, M. J. and Ahumada, J. A. 2000. Inuence of Fruit Availability on Ecological Over lap among Four Neotropical Primates at Tinigua Nation al Park, Colombia. Biotropica. 32(3): 533. Symington, M. M. 1990. Fission-fusion social organiza tion in Ateles and Pan . Int. J. Primatol . 11(1): 47. PRIMER REGISTRO DE PITHECIA MILLERI ALLEN, 1914 EN LA BAJA BOTA CAUCANA, CORREGIMIENTO DE MIRAFLOR, MUNICIPIO DE PIAMONTE, CAUCA Laura Surez Hugo Mantilla-Meluk Introduccin Los monos voladores o sakis, comprenden las especies de menor tamao entre los Pitheciines y son considerados habitantes tpicos de los bosques de varzea, igap y tierra rme en la Amazona (Rylands, 1988; Rylands y Mitter meier, 2009). Pithecia milleri , descrita como una especie separada de P. monachus en 1914 por Allen, fue remitida a subespecie de P. monachus por Hershkovitz (1987), crite rio aceptado para las poblaciones de Colombia por Deer (2004); siendo elevada de nuevo al estatus especco por Marsh (2014). Es poca la informacin que en la actuali dad existe sobre esta especie, considerada a la fecha en la categora Datos Decientes (DD) por la Unin Internacio nal para la Conservacin de la Naturaleza (Marsh, 2015); dicho desconocimiento, sumado a la degradacin por de forestacin de los ambientes que ocupa en la porcin de su distribucin en Colombia, son las principales amenazas para este taxn. Segn Garca et al., (2017) Pithecia milleri se distribuye en Colombia entre los 200 y 1,070 m.s.n.m., sobre el anco oriental de la Cordillera Oriental, en el Pi edemonte Andino-Amaznico, con lmite norte en San Vicente del Cagun, en el departamento del Caquet, cu briendo las cuencas del ro Cagun hasta su desembocadura en el ro Caquet; y al sur, a travs del interuvio de los ros Caquet y Putumayo, hasta el lmite de los departamentos del Putumayo y Amazonas en la poblacin de Guaquir. A pesar de que la presencia de la especie fue sugerida para la Bota Caucana por Garca et al., (2017), a la fecha no se cuenta con registros de P. milleri para el departamento del Cauca. Observaciones y discusin En el marco del desarrollo de las actividades de campo del proyecto Densidad Poblacional y Estructura de grupo de Plecturocebus caquetensis en la Baja Bota Caucana, bajo nanciacin de la Primate Society of Great Britain (PSGB), se reportan los primeros registros de mico volador ( P. mil leri ) para el municipio de Piamonte, departamento del Cauca, en la Baja Bota Caucana (Fig. 1), correspondientes a tres avistamientos independientes: i) observacin de un individuo solitario, el da 17 de septiembre de 2018 a las 7:07 horas, en el fragmento de bosque La Floresta, ubicado en el Resguardo Indgena Inga “La FlorestaLa Espaola” corregimiento de Miraor, municipio de Piamonte, en un bosque de tierra rme de Piedemonte a 302 m.s.n.m. (dosel denso: 15 m) (1 1.38”N, 76.77”O). El individuo observado se encontraba posado sobre un rbol de Yarumo negro ( Cecropia angustifolia) de 15 m. Al observar al investigador realiz despliegues agonsticos, emitiendo gruidos y balanceando su cuerpo de un lado al otro en repetidas ocasiones, para luego huir rpidam ente saltando en el estrato medio del bosque. De acu erdo al patrn de distribucin y coloracin del pelaje de la especie, y las caractersticas registradas para este indi viduo, consideramos que el individuo observado era una hembra; presentaba extremidades y cola con pelos largos negruzcos con puntas blanquecinas y manos con pelos blanquecinos, en contraste con lo reportado por Allen (1914) para los machos: puntas de los pelos en extremi dades y cola de color amarillento plido, y de color blanco amarillento en sus manos, ii) observacin de un individuo solitario el da 26 de septiembre de 2018 a las 7:44 horas, en el fragmento de bosque La Floresta, 294 m.s.n.m. (1 1.66”N, 76.40”O). Este individuo fue obser vado posado sobre un rbol (no identicado) de 12 m; al observar al investigador emite gruidos y emprende la huida rpidamente. Quiz, este individuo sea el mismo reportado para el primer avistamiento ya que se encon traba a unos 60m de distancia del primer punto de ob servacin reportado y era una hembra, iii) observacin de dos parejas de sakis, realizadas el da 8 de octubre de 2018

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54 a las 13:30 horas en un corredor de bosque que conecta el fragmento de bosque La Floresta y un segundo fragmento sin nombre (1 0.41”N, 76.80”O). Las parejas de P. milleri se avistaron posadas sobre rboles de aproxi madamente 20m de altura, distanciados 30m entre s. El reporte corresponde a una comunicacin del seor Nixon Palacios, dueo del predio y habitante de la localidad de Miraor por ms de 40 aos. En sus palabras describe los monos como “una especie rara, nunca vista en la zona, de pelaje denso, negruzco y con canas”. Estos registros en conjunto conrman la distribucin de P. milleri para el rea de la Bota Caucana, Departa mento del Cauca, sugerida por Garca et al. (2017). Se llama la atencin sobre la necesidad de realizar expedi ciones e investigaciones en los lmites de su distribucin, pues la carencia de i nformacin, sumada a la creciente deforestacin, exigen la formulacin pronta de estrategias para la conservacin de la especie. deseo de contribuir y apoyar iniciativas de conservacin en la Baja Bota Caucana, permitiendo el acceso a sus bosques. Referencias Allen, J. A. 1914. New South American monkeys. Bull . Am . Mus . Nat . His . 33: 647. Deer, T. R. 2004. Primates of Colombia . Conservation In ternational, Washington DC. Garca, V. J., Paz, A., Palacios, E. 2017. Aportes al con ocimiento de la distribucin del mico Volador Pithecia milleri (Allen, 1914) en el occidente Amaznico colom biano. Neotrop. Primates 23(2): 59. Hershkovitz, P. 1987. e taxonomy of South American sakis, genus Pithecia (Cebidae, Platyrrhini): a preliminary report and critical review with the description of a new species and a new subspecies. Am . J . Primatol . 12: 387. Marsh, L. K. 2014. A Taxonomic revision of the Saki mon keys, Pithecia Desmarest, 1804. Neotrop . Primates . 21(1): 1. Marsh, L. K. and Veiga, L. M. 2015. Pithecia milleri . e IUCN Red List of reatened Species 2015. Website: http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-1. RLTS. T17407A70609259. Consultado el 22 de noviembre de 2018. Rylands, A. B. and Keuroghlian, A. 1988. Primate popula tions in continuous forest and forest fragments in central Amazonia, Acta Amaz . 18: 291 Rylands, A. B. and Mittermeier, R. A. 2009. e diver sity of the New World primates (Platyrrhini). In: South American Primates: Comparative Perspectives in the Study of Behavior, Ecology, and Conservation. In: P. A. Garber, A. Estrada, J. C. Bicca-Marques, E. W. Heymann and K. B. Strier (eds.), pp.23. Springer, New York. EVIDENCE OF OPOSSUM DIDELPHIS SP. PRE DATION BY WHITEFRONTED CAPUCHINS CEBUS YURACUS IN THE COPALLN PRIVATE CONSERVATION AREA, AMAZONAS, PER Karen Pedersen Sam Shanee Christian Miguel Olivera Tarifeo Introduction Capuchin monkeys (Genera Cebus and Sapajus ) are om nivorous and known to opportunistically prey on small vertebrates including frogs, lizards, adult birds, eggs, nest lings, bats, squirrels, coatis and mice (Izawa, 1978; Fedigan 1990; Milano and Monteiro-Filho, 2009). However, there are a few reports of Capuchins feeding on larger mamma lian preys. e white-faced capuchins ( Cebus capucinus ) have been observed feeding on coati pups (Newcomer and De Farcy, 1985; Fedingan, 1990; Perry and Rose, 1994), Ka’apor capuchins ( Cebus kaapori ) have been observed feed ing on a young titi monkey (Sampaio and Ferrari, 2005), Figura 1. Primer registro de Pithecia milleri (estrella negra), para la Baja Bota Caucana (rea en gris), y registros de la especie so portados por datos museolgicos (puntos grises) y observaciones en campo (puntos en blanco). Modicado de Garca et al., 2017. Laura Surez Ramrez , Programa de Biologa, Facultad de Ciencias Bsicas y Tecnolgicas, Universidad del Quindo, Armenia y Hugo Mantilla Meluk , Centro de Estudios de Alta Montaa de la Universidad del Quindo, Armenia. Agradecimientos A la Primate Society of Great Britain (PSGB) por el apoyo nanciero. A Conservacin Internacional Colombia y su Alianza Naturamazonas, por su apoyo y alojamiento en el Centro de Capacitacin Agro-Forestal Guayuyaco. A los bilogos Javier Garca Villalba y Erwin Palacios por sus aportes acerca de la especie. A Catherine Meneses por sus recomendaciones en la elaboracin del mapa. Agradecemos en especial al Resguardo Indgena Inga de La FlorestaLa Es paola, a Nixon Palacios, Alonso Cuellar y su esposa, por su

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55 and black striped capuchins ( Sapajus libidinosus ) have been observed preying on snakes (Faltico et al., 2018). Milano and Monteiro-Filho (2009) reported Azaras’s capuchins ( Sa pajus cay ) chasing a mammal the size of an opossum, though conclusive identication was impossible before the monkey and prey animal were lost from sight. e black-horned ca puchin ( Sapajus nigritus ) was observed attempting to con sume a brown-eared woolly opossum ( Caluromys lanatus ) that had been run over; this occurred in Mata Santa Tereza, Brazil, a semi urban area where capuchins are accustomed to receiving food on the ground from local people which may alter their behavior (Palmeira and Pianca, 2012). Here we present an observation of a white-fronted capuchin ( Ce bus yuracus ) preying on an opossum in the Copalln Private Conservation Area in Amazonas, northern Peru. Methods We placed four camera stations of three camera traps (Bush nell Aggressor No Glow Trail Cameras) each on the Las Higueras trail in the Copalln Private Conservation Area (S 05”, W 78”) , bordering the Santuario Nacio nal Cordillera de Coln (Fig. 1). Each camera was set fac ing animal trails at a height of ~ 40 cm above the ground. Cameras were congured to take one photo followed by 30 seconds of video. We set the cameras on the 13th and 14th of March, 2018 and they were taken down on the 14th and 15th of May, 2018. Once collected, the photos and videos from each trap were transferred to a hard drive for analy ses and storage (Sanderson and Harris, 2013). e camera which recorded the predation event was set at an altitude of 2,413 m above sea level and recorded for 1,466 hours (62 camera days). Results and discussion On 2nd of April 2018 at 16:32, the camera of inter est captured one photo of a capuchin ( Cebus yuracus ) on the ground and then 30 seconds of video of the capuchin clutching a dead Didelphis sp. to its underbelly and disap pearing onto an animal trail (Fig. 2). is is the rst and only time we have seen monkeys on our terrestrial camera traps despite sampling for almost a year. ough vertebrate predation is well documented in Old World primates (Hausfater, 1976; Busse, 1977; Morris and Goodall, 1977; McGrew et al., 1978; Anderson, et al., 1983; McGrew 1983; Takahata et al.,1984; Boesch and Boesch, 1989; Wrangham and Riss, 1990; Alp, 1993; Basabose, and Yamagiwa, 1997; Wrangham, 1999; Surbeck, and Hohmann, 2008; Fowler and Hohmann, 2010), it has been much less studied in the New World primates ( Izawa, K. 1978; Newcomer and De Farcy 1985; Perry and Rose, 1994; Sampaio and Ferrari 2005; Milano and Monteiro-Filho, 2009; Sanderson and Harris 2013; Faltico et al., 2018). Capuchins are well known to hunt but this is the rst record we are aware of that documents mammal predation in Cebus yuracus, and the rst con rmed report of a capuchin predating on an opossum . Additionally, there are very few records of capuchins prey ing on opossums, in the literature. e one observation we were able to nd was unconrmed but probable (Mi lano and Monteiro-Filho, 2009) and one attempt (Pal meira and Pianca, 2012). While there are few in-depth studies of Neotropical opossums ( Didelphis ), the Virginia opossum ( Didelphis virginiana ), the northern and central American species, has been extensively studied and found to be surprisingly resistant to rabies and ticks, however they are great sources for a number of other diseases and parasites, and therefore may be risky to consume (Tardieu et al., 2017). We do not know how the opossum died. It could have been killed by the capuchin in a tree and fallen to the ground, or have already been on the ground, and dead, nearly dead or killed there. e capuchin did leave the relative safety of the canopy to the ground to retrieve its body, or kill the opossum, indicating that it is a high enough quality food to be worth the risk of coming down from the trees to the forest oor. Acknowledgements We would like to thank Marlon Yordano Hoyos Cerna of the Santuario Nacional Cordillera de Coln and Gabriel Garcia Mendoza Nature and Culture International, for their help with identication, the hardworking park guards from both the Copalln Private Conservation Area, and Santuario Nacional Cordillera de Coln, for help in identi cation, and, the Peace Corps USAID for nancing grant number SP-16-527-009. Figure 1. Location of our eld site in the Andes of Northern Per, department of Amazonas, districts of Copallna and Cajaruro. e black star indicates the location of the camera trap which captured the image of the capuchin and the opossum.

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56 Karen Pedersen , Copalln Private Conservation Area, Peace Corps, # 321 Jr. Garcilazo de la Vega Copalln, Ama zonas, Per, E-mail: , Sam Sha nee , Asociacin Neotropical Primate Conservation Per, #1187 Av. Belaunde, Yambrasbamba, Amazonas, Per, and, Christian Miguel Olivera Tarifeo , Santuario Na cional Cordillera de Coln Jr. Ciro Alegra # 788 Bagua Grande, Amazonas, Per. References Alp, R., 1993. Meat eating and ant dipping by wild chim panzees in Sierra Leone. Primates 34: 463 . Anderson, J. R., Williamson, E. A., and Carter, J. 1983. Chimpanzees of Sapo Forest, Liberia: density, nests, tools and meat-eating. Primates : 594. Basabose, K., and Yamagiwa, J. 1997. Predation on mam mals by chimpanzees in the montane forest of Kahuzi, Zaire. Primates : 45. Boubli, J. P., Rylands, A. B., Farias, I. P., Alfaro, M. E., and Alfaro, J. L. 2012. Cebus Phylogenetic Relationships: A Preliminary Reassessment of the Diversity of the Untuft ed Capuchin Monkeys. Am. J. Primatol . 74: 381. Busse, C. D. 1977. Chimpanzee predation as a possible factor in the evolution of red colobus monkey social or ganization. Evolution 31: 907. Boesch, C., and Boesch, H. 1989. Hunting behavior of wild chimpanzees in the Tai National Park. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol .: 547. Faltico, T., Verderane, M. P., Mendona-Furtado, O., Sp agnoletti, N., Ottoni, E. B., Visalberghi, E., and Izar, P. 2018. Food or threat? Wild capuchin monkeys ( Sapajus libidinosus ) as both predators and prey of snakes. Primates 59: 99. Fedigan, L. M. 1990. Vertebrate predation in Cebus capuci nus : meat eating in a Neotropical monkey. Folia Primatol . 54: 196. Fowler, A., and Hohmann, G. 2010. Cannibalism in wild bonobos ( Pan paniscus ) at Lui Kotale. Am. J. Prima tol .: 509. Hausfater, G. 1976. Predatory behavior of yellow ba boons. Behaviour : 44. Izawa, K. 1978. Frog-eating behavior of wild black-capped capuchin ( Cebus apella ). Primates 19: 633. Keesing, F., Brunner, J., Duerr, S., Killilea, M., LoGiudice, K., Schmidt, K., Young H. and Ostfeld, R. S. 2009. Hosts as ecological traps for the vector of Lyme disease. Proc R. Soc. Lond. B. Biol. Sci .: 3911. McGrew, W. C. Tutin, C. E. G., Baldwin, P. J., Sharman M. J., and Whiten, A. 1978. Primates preying upon ver tebrates: new records from West Africa ( Pan troglodytes verus , Papio papio , Cercopithecus sabaeus ). Carnivore 1: 41. McGrew, W. C. 1983. Animal foods in the diets of wild chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes ): Why cross-cultural varia tion? J. Ethol .: 46. Figure 2. Video stills from the video of the capuchin clutching a dead Didelphis sp. to its underbelly. e opossum’s feet, and hairless tail as well as part of its body can be seen. e arrows point to the opossum.

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57 Milano, M. Z., and Monteiro-Filho, E. L. A. 2009. Pre dation on small mammals by capuchin monkeys, Cebus cay . Neotrop. Primates : 78. Morris, K., and Goodall, J. 1977. Competition for meat between chimpanzees and baboons of the Gombe Na tional Park. Folia Primatol. 28: 109. Newcomer, M. W., and De Farcy, D. D. 1985. Whitefaced capuchin ( Cebus capucinus ) predation on a nestling coati ( Nasua narica ). J. Mammal. : 185. Palmeira, F. B. L. and Pianca, C. C., 2012. Predation At tempt on a Roadkilled Brown-Eared Woolly Opossum ( Caluromys lanatus ) by a Black-Horned Capuchin ( Sapa jus nigritus ). Neotrop. Primates :36. Perry, S., and Rose, L. 1994. Begging and transfer of coati meat by white-faced capuchin monkeys, Cebus capucinus . Primates 35: 409. Sanderson, J., and Harris, G. 2013. Automatic data orga nization, storage, and analysis of camera trap pictures. J. Ind. Nat. Hist. : 11. Sampaio, D. T., and Ferrari, S. F. 2005. Predation of an in fant titi monkey ( Callicebus moloch ) by a tufted capuchin ( Cebus apella ). Folia Primatol. : 113. Surbeck, M., and Hohmann, G. 2008. Primate hunting by bonobos at LuiKotale, Salonga National Park. Curr. Biol. : 906. Takahata, Y., Hasegawa, T., and Nishida, T. 1984. Chim panzee predation in the Mahale Mountains from August 1979 to May 1982. Int. J. Primatol. : 213. Tardieu, L., Adogwa, A. O., and Garcia, G. W. 2017. Di delphis species, neo-tropical animals with the potential for intensive production: Part 1 Review of taxonomy, natural history, general biology, animal behavior, and nu trition. Trop. Agric .: 157. Wrangham, R. W., and Riss, E. V. Z. B. 1990. Rates of predation on mammals by Gombe chimpanzees, 1972– 1975. Primates : 157–-170. Wrangham, R. W. 1999. Evolution of coalitionary killing. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol . 110: 1. AMPLIACI”N DEL REA DE DISTRIBUCI”N DEL MONO MAICERO CACH”N SAPAJUS APELLA : NUEVO REGISTRO EN EL PARQUE NACIONAL NATURAL LAS HERMOSASGVC, TOLIMA, COLOMBIA Pablo Paya Jess-A Snchez-C Carolina Guzmn-V Germn Rodrguez-P N stor Roncancio-D Introduccin Producto de los cambios sociopolticos que se han dado en Colombia en los ltimos aos, se ha podido ingresar a zonas que incluyen porciones del sistema de reas protegi das, donde antes no era posible, y avanzar con la gestin de generar informacin primaria, e implementar sus planes de monitoreo y portafolios de investigacin. Esto ha per mitido explorar cientcamente reas que estuvieron veta das por dcadas y conocer ms detalladamente aspectos de la ecologa de algunas especies, e incluso descubrir algu nas nuevas para la ciencia (Vieira-U y Karremans, 2018; Vieira-U y Moreno, 2018), conocimiento clave para revisar las prioridades de conservacin y orientar el manejo ambi ental de los territorios (Nichols y Williams, 2006; Pullin y Knight, 2005). En el marco de la implementacin del plan de monitoreo del oso andino ( Tremarctos ornatus ) y la danta de pramo ( Tapirus pinchaque ), y obedeciendo al diseo de muestreo denido para ellos, el equipo del PNN Las Hermosas – Glo ria Valencia de Castao ingres a esta rea protegida por el sector del departamento del Tolima, municipio de Chapar ral, para hacer recorridos en donde histricamente el acceso haba estado restringido. Observacin El 15 de mayo de 2018 se registraron cuatro individuos de Mono maicero cachn ( Sapajus apella, Asociacin Pri matolgica Colombiana, 2016) (Sinnimos: Cebus apella en Deer, 2010; Sapajus macrocephalus en De la Torre et al., 2018), en el lmite del rea protegida, en el muni cipio de Chaparral, departamento de Tolima (3.75975N, -75.68392W) a 2,370 metros de elevacin (Fig. 1). Figura 1. rea de estudio y sitio de registro de Sapajus apella en el PNN Las Hermosas – Gloria Valencia de Castao

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58 Discusin Sapajus apella est categorizada como especie de preocu pacin menor (LC) pero se considera que su poblacin est disminuyendo (De la Torre, 2018), y con la tenden cia actual de deforestacin podra perder cerca del 21 % de su hbitat a 2030 (Carretero-P y Stevenson, 2018). En Colombia la especie tena una extensin de ocurrencia es timada de aproximadamente 521,362 km 2 , que abarcaba toda la Amazona y parte de la Orinoquia colombiana, excepto en algunas zonas al oriente, en el departamento del Vichada, penetrando tambin en el alto valle del ro Magdalena hasta el departamento de Huila (Deer, 2010; Carretero-P y Stevenson, 2018). Su distribucin dentro de reas protegidas representa 21.9 %, correspondiendo el 17.3 % a reas del Sistema de Parques Nacionales Natura les y 4.6 % a otras guras de proteccin. Las coberturas vegetales dentro de su rea de distribucin estimada son bosque denso en un 78 %, pastos limpios en un 7.61 % y vegetacin secundaria o en transicin en un 2.32 % (Car retero-P y Stevenson, 2018). Con este registro se ampla la distribucin de la especie cerca de 100 kilmetros al norte sobre la cuenca del ro Magdalena, ms all de reas de bosque seco hoy en situacin de alta reduccin y fragmen tacin (IDEAM, 2012). Es probable que, la poblacin en el PNN Las Hermosas-Glora Valencia de Castao (GVC) sea una poblacin aislada en un hbitat marginal, dado que en general los primates Neotropicales tienden a preferir zo nas bajas ms clidas (Deer, 2010). Sapajus apella es tal vez la especie de primate con la mayor rea de distribucin en el pas y la tercera con ms estu dios documentados. A pesar de ello, an hay vacos de informacin en aspectos tan elementales como su distri bucin (Guzmn-Caro et al., 2018), situacin debida en parte probablemente a la dicultad de tener un muestreo representativo dada la extensin de ocurrencia de la espe cie. Este registro reeja que sigue siendo necesario obtener conocimiento adicional clave para planear, implementar y monitorear la gestin para la conservacin de los primates en Colombia (Guzmn-Caro et al., 2018) y en particular de las reas protegidas, que permitan hacer el manejo alin eado a un proceso de toma estructurada de decisiones (Pos singham et al., 2001). Agradecimientos Los autores agradecen a todo el equipo del Parque Nacio nal Natural Las Hermosas – GVC quienes acompaaron las labores de campo en el marco de las cuales se obtuvo este registro. Igualmente, a Isagen por el apoyo nanciero y la articulacin tcnica con Parques Nacionales Naturales, que el marco de las alianzas pblico privadas, permiti la implementacin del programa de monitoreo del PNN Las Hermosas-GVC. Pablo Paya , Jess-A Snchez-C ., Carolina GuzmnV , Germn Rodrguez-P , Parque Nacional Natural Las Hermosas-Glora Valencia de Castao, Parques Nacionales Naturales de Colombia y Nstor Roncancio-D , Direccin Territorial Andes Occidentales, Parques Nacionales Natu rales de Colombia. Referencias Asociacin Primatolgica Colombiana. 2016. Lista de pri mates colombianos de la Asociacin Primatolgica Co lombiana. www.asoprimatologicacolombiana.org. Con sultado el 23 de diciembre de 2018. Carretero-P, X. y Stevenson, P. 2018. Modelo de distri bucin de Sapajus apella ID PRI. Laboratorio de Biogeografa Aplicada. Instituto Alexander von Hum boldt. http://biomodelos.humboldt.org.co/species/ visor?species_id=932 . De la Torre, S., Boubli, J., Calouro, A. M., Heymann, E. W., Lynch Alfaro, J., Martins, A. B., Mollinedo, J., Mos coso, P., Ravetta, A., Shanee, S. y Urbani, B. 2018. Sapa jus macrocephalus . Guzmn-Caro, D. C., Vargas, S. A., Crdenas, S., Castro, J. D. y Stevenson P. R., 2018. Estudio y conservacin de primates en Colombia: avances, retos y el papel del Siste ma de Parques Nacionales Naturales. En: La primatologa en Latinoamrica 2 – A primatologia na America Latina 2 . Tomo I Argentina-Colombia, B. Urbani, Kowalewski M., Cunha R., De la Torre S. y L. Corts-Ortiz (ed.), pp. 283. Ediciones IVIC. Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientcas (IVIC). Caracas, Venezuela. [IDEAM] Instituto de Hidrologa, Meteorologa y Estudios Ambientales. 2012. Leyenda Nacional de Coberturas de la Tierra. Metodologa CORINE Land Cover adaptada para Colombia Escala 1:100.000 . Bogot, D. C., Colombia. Nichols, J. D. y Williams, B. K. 2006. Monitoring for Conservation. Trends Ecol. Evol. 21 (12): 668. Possingham, H., Andelman, S. J., Noon, B. R., Trombu lak, S. y Pulliam, H. R. 2001. Making smart conservation decisions. En: Conservation Biology: Research Priorities for the Next Decade Soule M. E y G. H Orians (eds.), pp. 225. Island Press. Washington. Pullin, A. S. y Knight, T. M. 2005. Assessing Conservation Management’s Evidence Base: Survey of ManagementPlan Compilers in the United Kingdom y Australia. Cons. Biol. 19: 1989. e IUCN Red List of reatened Species 2018: e.T42696A70613972.http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/ IUCN.UK.2018-.RLTS.T42696A70613972.en.Des cargado el 22 de diciembre de 2018. Vieira-U, S. y Karremans, A. P., 2018. La Specklinia (Orquidaceae) con seuelo, una asombrosa nueva especie de los Andes occidentales en Colombia. Orquideologa 35 (2): 164 Vieira-U, S. y Moreno, J. S. 2018. Dos nuevas especies de Lepanthes (Orquidiaceae: Pleurothallidinae) del Parque Nacional Natural Tatam en Colombia. Orquideologa 35 (2):176

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59 N AN UPDATE ON THE COIBA HOWLER MONKEY, COIBA ISLAND, PANAM After visiting Coiba Island in the Gulf of Chiriqui in 1999, and in 2001 as eld assistant of Liliana Corts-Ortiz in her research on the phylogeny of the genus Alouatta , I found that I had left a piece of myself there. Its mystique—a cruel and fearsome island, a hideout for pirates, and later a peni tentiary—was augmented by my fascination of its beauty, spectacular wildlife, and almost untouched forest, and it was inspirational for my early career as a primatologist in Panama. I felt I was Jim Hawkins, visiting the Treasure Island of Robert Louis Stevenson. Leaving the island in 2001, I resolved to return someday as a Panamanian prima tologist, to study the population and ecology of the howler monkeys and capuchins there. When I returned from Coiba in 1999, I become interested in the Coiba howler monkey, and reviewed the literature concerning the island and its wildlife, visiting the libraries of University of Panama and the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. I did my rst publication about Coiba primates as “e kun-kun howler; an endemic primate at extinction risk”, published in 2002 in a special edition about Coiba, “Coiba; an unpublished world”, in the magazine Icaro of the National Association for Conservation (ANCON). is article was read by Alvaro Espinel, who showed it to Anthony Rylands, who helped me with my rst scientic note in Neotropical Primates Jour nal , also in 2002. I briey described the geography and biodiversity of Coiba and the smaller island of Jicarn, ex plaining that Coiba Island passed from the status of high security prison (since 1919), incorporated a scientic station (1996), and eventually become a national park (2005), also recognized as Natural Heritage of Humanity, awarded by the United Nations Educational, Scientic and Cultural Orga nization (UNESCO). Having achieved my Masters’ degree in Primate Conservation from Oxford Brookes University, UK (2008), I returned to Panama and created an NGO called the Fundacin Pro-Conservacin de los Primates Panameos (FCPP) ( fcprimatespanama. org ), and in 2010 began the rst primate population survey on Coiba Island. In 2010 I invited Timothy Bearder as volunteer of my proj ect from Oxford BBC Radio Station and he made a lm, a brief documentary, which he donated ( https://www.you tube.com/watch?v=EvldLq-Tsn4 ). e project “Population and Conservation Status of Azuero Peninsula and Coiba En demic Primates” was supported by the Ruord Foundation (2011), and fullled my wish to study the Coiba howlers and capuchins. Recently, our eorts to conserve the primates and the bio logical diversity of Coiba have been greatly helped with the formal creation of a eld station there, the “Estacin Cient ca Coiba AIP” created by Panama’s National Science and Technology Secretary (SENACYT), with the FCPP being part of the committee as associate investigators with the project “Population ecology and genetic characterization of two subspecies of primates endemic to Coiba Island and the Azuero peninsula, Republic of Panama”, in collabora tion with Edgardo Daz-Ferguson, an expert geneticist, and Coiba AIP’s director (Panam, SENACYT, 2019). New ob servations have been carried out in Coiba Island also for ar boreal and volant mammals using the Orion Camera System (OCS) (Mndez-Carvajal, 2014). OCS consists of an array of canopy camera traps at 12 m high level that will allow us to understand activity patterns, interactions with arboreal mammals, and habitat use. Other studies being led by FCPP include research on bats and on the mammalian diversity in the forest understory of Coiba. e capuchin monkeys of Coiba have been studied to understand their dierent tech niques of survival. A recently published description of their feeding behavior included descriptions of their use of tools (Mndez-Carvajal and Valdes-Daz, 2017). As we know more about Coiba, however, its exuberance and beauty are drawing increasing attention from tourists, a trend which is potentially detrimental. By 2014, FCPP advised the government the problem that cows and buf falos were causing negative impact in the understory and increasing the hematophagous bats density. e Panama nian government nally achieved the removal of the feral cows and bualos from the island. Being Coiba Island an important point for shing and tourism, the activities has subsequently increased, and is now being promoted by the Panamanian Government. e building of an airport on Coiba Island has been polemic, with local people from Santa Catalina beach, Banco beach and Montijo Gulf, arguing strongly against it. Tourism and development are now putting the Coiba howler monkey at increasing risk, resulting in an IUCN Red List assessment that places it as Endangered. New research is availing Coiba with more arguments for its conservation, with such as Carlos Ramos from the University of Panama, and her student Yohanny Pineda, studying population genetics aspects of Coiba and Azuero monkeys, Pedro Gonzlez (Biology student) from the University of Panama (CRU-Cocl), Karol Gutirrez (Chemistry student) from the Autono mous University of Chiriqui (UNACHI), Margie Tejada and Kimberly McIntosh (Parasitology students), Yohanni Pineda (Genetics student) from the University of Panama linked to FCPP-Coiba AIP (Del Moral, 2018), helping to study and protect the Coiba howler monkeys, and its habitat. An update of Coiba research “Long-term moni toring of the Coiba howler monkey Alouatta coibensis coibensis and other mammals from Coiba Island, Coiba National Park, Republic of Panama”, was presented re cently during the IV Ruord Small Grant Conference South America Science for the Conservation of the East ern Tropical Pacic Region, on January 21 to 26, 2019, in the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador. We continue monitoring and studying Coiba for the conservation of its biodiver sity, and now endangered howler monkeys.

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60 Pedro G. Mndez-Carvajal , Fundacin Pro-Conservacin de los Primates Panameos (FCPP) (FCPP), 0816-05855, Panama. mendezp@fcprimatespanama.org. Professor, De partment of Physiology and Animal Behavior, Biology School, University of Panama, and Associate Investigator of the Coiba Island Scientic Station (Coiba AIP). References Corts-Ortiz, L., Bermingham, E., Rico, C., Rodriguez-Lu na, E., Sampaio, I. and Ruiz-Garcia, M. 2003. Molecular systematics and biogeography of the Neotropical monkey genus, Alouatta . Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 26: 64. Del Morral, T. 2018. Las riquezas naturales de Coiba. Ima gina 8: 40-41. Froehlich J.W. and Froehlich P.H. 1986. Dermatoglyphics and subspecic systematics of mantled howler monkeys ( Alouatta palliata ). In: Current Perspectives in Primate Bi ology , D.M. Taub and F.A. King (eds.), pp.107. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York. Froehlich, J.W. and Froehlich P.H. 1987. e status of Panama’s endemic howling monkeys. Primate Conserv. (8): 58. Mndez-Carvajal, P.G. 2002a. El Kun-kun howler; an en demic primate in extinction risk. Icaro 7: 28-30. Mndez-Carvajal, P.G. 2002b. Coiba Island, Panama. Neo trop. Primates 10(3): 162. Mndez-Carvajal, P.G. & Serio-Silva, J.C. 2011. Daybreak and bark analysis for two species of howler monkeys Al ouatta coibensis and Alouatta palliata : Atelidae, Republic of Panam. In: Perspectivas en Primatologa Mexicana (Ed.): Lilia Gama Campillo, Gilberto Pozo Montuy, Wil frido M. Contreras Sanchez, y Stefan L. Arriaga Weiss. 164pp. Mndez-Carvajal, P.G. 2012. Population Study of Coiba Howler Monkeys ( Alouatta coibensis coibensis ) and Coiba Capuchin Monkeys ( Cebus capucinus imitator ), Coiba Island National Park, Republic of Panama. J. Prima tol. 1:104. URL: http://dro.dur.ac.uk/15650/1/15650. pdf?DDD5+kgvh67+d700tmt Mndez-Carvajal, P. G. 2014. e Orion Camera System, a new method for deploying camera traps in tree canopy to study arboreal primates and other mammals: a case study in Panama. Revista Mesoamericana , 18(1): 9. URL: https:// www.rufford.org/files/Mesoamericana%2018(1)%20 Volumen%2018(1)%20Agosto%20de%202014%20 nn.pdf Mndez-Carvajal, P.G. & Valdes-Daz, S. 2017. Use of anvils and other feeding behaviour observed in Cebus im itator , Coiba Island, Panama. Tecnociencia 19(1): 5. URL: http://www.repositorio.up.ac.pa/635/1/Tecnocien cia%20Articulo%201%20Pedro%20Mendez.pdf Milton, K. and Mittermeier, R. A. 1977. A brief survey of the primates of Coiba Island, Panama. Primate s 18: 931. Panam, SENACYT. 2019. La Estacin Cientica Coiba AIP present su plan estratgico. Secretara Nacional de Ciencia, Tecnologa e Innovacin (SENACYT), Panam. URL: . Accessed 30 January 2019. Ruord Foundation. 2011. Pedro Guillermo MndezCarvajal. URL: https://www.ruord.org/rsg/projects/ pedro_guillermo_m%C3%A9ndezcarvajal . Accessed 30 January 2019. ACTIVITIES OF THE MESOAMERICAN PRIMA TOLOGY THEMATIC GROUP GITPRIMATES MESO IN THE MESOAMERICAN SOCIETY FOR BIOLOGY AND CONSERVATION SMBC e VI Mesoamerican Primate Symposium was held at the Sheraton Hotel in Panama City, Republic of Pan am, as part of the program of the XXII Congreso de la Sociedad Mesoamericana para la Biologa y la Conserva cin, 21 November 2018. Seven of the eight Meso american countries were represented at this event, held since 2012 to promote the exchange of information and encourage collaboration among primatologists from the region to improve and inspire new eorts from national primatologists to conserve our primate species. e meet ings organized to date were in Panama (2012 and 2018), Belize (2016), and Costa Rica (2017), all organized by the Fundacin Pro-Conservacin de los Primates Pan ameos (FCPP) and its director Pedro Mendez-Carvajal, who is also the coordinator of GIT Primates Meso. e attendance was up compared to previous meetings due to the huge support received from anonymous donors besides the regular supporters (see Acknowledgements). e Symposia are attracting attention in South America and Caribbean side, and we welcome people from those regions. ere were 14 participating primatologists who presented papers on ethology (Pedro Mndez-Carvajal, Pedro Gonzlez), parasitology and zoonosis (Adela Palma, Enos Jurez), plant chemistry and the howler diet (Karol Gutirrez), social hierarchy (Juan Jos Fernndez-Cas tro), distribution (Danilo Chiari), conservation (Daniela Solano-Rojas, Melissa Rodriguez, Jarinton Garca, Luz Lora, Roger Morales, and Mynor Sandoval). e Meso american region and the Mesoamerican corridor are un der threat from the narco-deforestation, putting the last Panamanian spider monkeys ( Ateles georoyi panamensis ) at risk, according to the 2018 report of Primates in Peril: e World’s 25 Most Endangered Primates . Eorts to pro tect the corridor have taken the lives of several conser vationists. e symposium included a session concern ing the importance of art as a tool for conservation. e rst non-human primate mural in acrylic was presented by Victor Aleksander Martnez, a Panamanian artist from the University of Panama, creating a link between visual

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61 power, cultural importance, and conservation. In our opening and ending sessions, we reected on the loss of Robert Horwich and his huge contribution in Mesoamer ica for the conservation of non-human primates, working with the local communities, particularly in Belize, and also on the legacy of the celebrated Honduran Berta C ceres, who fought so hard for wildlife conservation. Our message is that conservation cannot be blind. As local scientists and primatologists, we feel that conservationists and scientists need to have more support from IUCN and other organizations that promote conservation, a reality that we face year by year. We need to have a backup when a conservationist is under threat. is same argument was pronounced by the author as the representative from FCPP and GIT Primates Meso in the last Congress of the International Primatological Society (IPS) held in Nairo bi, Kenya, in 2018. e improvement of primate studies in Mesoamerica need to be promoted and for this reason, we set up a new annual course in January 2018, “Moni toring Systems in Primates and Bats,” at the Chucanti Natural Reserve, Maje Mountain Chain, Panama. e course is an initiative of the FCPP, supported by Adopta Bosque Panama (led by Guido Berguido), to train young biologists and students in related elds interested in learn ing basic techniques to carry out population surveys for primates and bats as arboreal and volant seed dispersers. Due to the lack of updated scientic information on the Mesoamerican primates, GIT Primates Meso and FCPP opened a webpage (https://primatesmesoamerica.org) to integrate new leaders and facilitate communication, not only between primatologists but also others who may be interested. Proceedings of the Mesoamerican Primate Symposium can be found at https://fcprimatespanama. org/noticias.html. Acknowledgements e Mesoamerican Primates Symposia have been made possible by the support of Primate Action Fund (PAF) of Conservation International and (currently) Global Wildlife Conservation, the Margot Marsh Biodiversity Foundation, Primate Conservation, Inc., and the Environment Minis try of Panama, and most by especially Emilio Sempris and Yamil Snchez. My special thanks to Durham University, Durham, UK, and to Katharine Milton and Jackie Willis for personal donations for the past symposia in Belize and Costa Rica. Pedro G. Mndez-Carvajal , Fundacin Pro-Conservacin de los Primates Panameos (FCPP), 0816-05855, Panama. E-mail: , Professor, Department of Physiology and Animal Behavior, School of Biology, University of Panam, and Associate Researcher, Coiba Island Scientic Station (Coiba AIP). O FILOMENO ENCARNACI”N: 1945-2019 Si en algn momento alguien va a escribir una histo ria de la primatologa en el Per, el nombre Filome prominente. Aunque no fue primatlogo por entrena miento sino botnico, sus actividades desarrolladas como integrante del Proyecto Peruano de Primatologa (PPP), muchas en compaa de Rolando Aquino, han sido extremamente importantes para avanzar y ampliar los conocimientos acerca de los primates del Per. El tomo “Primates of Peru – Primates del Per”, publica do como edicin bilinge en la revista Primate Report , sigue siendo una referencia importante, no obstante los muchos cambios taxonmicos y la cantidad de conoci miento generada desde su publicacin en 1994. Fue au tor y co-autor de varias publicaciones sobre primates, la Amazona peruana. Filomeno siempre tomaba una perspectiva conservacio llando actividades pertinentes. Durante el 2 simposio “Primatologa en el Per” en Iquitos en noviembre 2013, Filomeno – junto con Rolando Aquino – fue condecora do con el “Premio Philip Hershkovitz” por su eminente contribucin al desarollo de la primatologa peruana y nombrado miembro honorario de la Sociedad Latinoa mericana de Primatologa. Filomeno fue amigo mo desde que nos encontramos produccin y Conservacin de Primates del Instituto Veterinario de Investigaciones Tropicales y de Altura (IVITA) en Iquitos. Estoy eternamente agradecido con l por el enorme apoyo que recib a largo de los aos para desarollar mis actividades primatolgicas en el Per, y sobretodo por apoyar el desarollo de la Estacin Biol gica Quebrada Blanco. Siempre le recordar con mucho cario y respeto, y le voy a extraar. Estoy convencido que este sentimiento es compartido por la comunidad

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62 primatolgica del Per y allende de Latinoamrica. Fi lomeno falleci el 12 agosto de 2019; le sobreviven su esposa Yolanda y su hija Myrcia. Eckhard W. Heymann , Verhaltenskologie & Sozio biologie, Deutsches Primatenzentrum – Leibniz-Institut fr Primatenforschung, Kellnerweg 4, 37077 Gttingen, Alemania. E-mail: eheyman@gwdg.de Publicaciones cientcas de Filomeno Encarnacin Cajaaupa 1. Aquino, R., Cornejo, F. M., Corts Ortiz, L., Encar nacin, F., Heymann, E. W., Marsh, L. K., Mitter meier, R. A., Rylands, A. B. and Vermeer, J. 2015. Monkeys of Peru. Pocket identication guide – Primates de Per. Gua de identicacin de bolsillo . Conserva tion International, Arlington. structure of Aotus nancymai (Cebidae: Primates) in Peruvian Amazon lowland forest. American Journal of Primatology 11:1. and use of sleeping sites in Aotus (Cebidae: Prima tes) in the Amazon lowlands of Peru. American Jour nal of Primatology 11:310. tion densities and geographic distribution of night monkeys ( Aotus nancymai and Aotus vociferans ) (Ce bidae: Primates) in northeastern Peru. American Jour nal of Primatology 5. Aquino, R. y Encarnacin, F. 1994. Primates of Peru Los Primates del Per . Primate Report 40:1. 6. Aquino, R. y Encarnacin, F. 1996. Distribucin Saguinus tripartitus en la Amazona del Per. Neotropical Primates 4:1. 7. Aquino, R. y Encarnacin, F. 1999. Observaciones preliminares sobre la dieta de Cacajao calvus ucayalii en el nor-oriente peruano. Neotropical Primates 7:1. Supplemental notes on population parameters of nor theastern Peruvian night monkeys, genus Aotus (Ce bidae). American Journal of Primatology 21:215. 9. Aquino, R., Puertas, P. y Encarnacin, F. 1992. Evaluacin post-captura de Aotus vociferans y Aotus nancymaae en bosques de la Amazona peruana. Folia Amazonica 4:141. Las Mimosodeas del Arbortum Jenaro Herrera (provincia de Requena, departamento de Loreto, Per). Candollea 36:301. 11. Castro, N., Encarnacin, F., Valverde, L., Uga moto, M. y Maruyama, E. 1990. Censo de prima tes no humanos en el sur oriente peruano: Iberia y Iapari (Departamento de Madre de Dios), Junio (ed) La Primatologa en el Per Investigaciones Pri matolgicas (1973-1985) . Imprenta Propaceb, Lima, 12. Descailleaux, J., Fujita, R., Rodrguez, L. A., Aqui no, R. y Encarnacin, F. (1990) Rearreglos cromo smicos y variabilidad cariotpica del gnero Aotus (Cebidae: Platyrrhini). In: Castro-Rodrguez NE (ed) La Primatologa en el Per Investigaciones Pri matolgicas (1973-1985) . Imprenta Propaceb, Lima, pp 572. Saimiri sciureus , Linnaeus, fraile“ (Primates: Cebi dae) a nuevas fuentes alimenticias en la Amazona peruana. Boletn del Proyecto Primates 3 :1. forestales comunes en el Per. Proyecto PNUD/ 7. Mi nisterio de Agriculrtura, Lima, 149 p. getacin de la Amazona peruana: estado actual de los estudios, medio natural y ensayo de una clave de determinacin de las formaciones vegetales en la llanura amaznica. Candollea 40:237. 16. Encarnacin, F. 1993. El bosque y las formaciones vegetales en la llanura amaznica del Per. Alma Mter 6:9514. 17. Encarnacin, F. 1990. Tcnicas y sistemas de atrape o captura de primates en la Amazona peruana. In: Castro-Rodrguez NE (ed) La Primatologa en el Per Investigaciones Primatolgicas (1973-1985) . Imprenta Propaceb, Lima, pp 152. y vegetacin de la Isla Iquitos y Padre Isla (Lore to, Per): su relacin con el manejo semiextensivo de Saguinus mystax , Saimiri sciureus y Aotus . In: Cas tro-Rodrguez NE (ed) La Primatologa en el Per Investigaciones Primatolgicas (1973-1985) . Imprenta 19. Encarnacin, F. y Castro, N. 1990. Informe prelimi nar sobre censo de primates no humanos en el sur oriente peruano: Iberia y Iapar1.i (Departamento

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63 Castro-Rodrguez NE (ed) La Primatologa en el Per Investigaciones Primatolgicas (1973-1985) . Imprenta Propaceb, Lima, pp 57. 20. Encarnacin, F., Castro, N. y de Rham, P. 1990. Observaciones sobre primates no humanos en el ro Yuvineto (ro Putumayo), Loreto, Per. In: Cas tro-Rodrguez NE (ed) La Primatologa en el Per Investigaciones Primatolgicas (1973-1985) . Imprenta the Tumbes Reserved Zone. Primate Conservation mass of wild Callimico goeldii . Folia Primatologica 23. Encarnacin, F. y Ique, C. 2000. Sistemas agro foretales y manejo de Saguinus mystax en de la isla inundable estacional, ro Amazonas, Per. In: San Martn F, Garca P M (eds) La Primatologa en el Per 2 , Lima, pp 153. 24. Encarnacin, F., Moya, L., Aquino, R., Tapia, J. y Soini, P. 2000. Situacin y estado actual de las espe cies de primates no humanos en el Per. In: Estrada A, Rodrguez-Luna E, Lpez-Wilchis R, Coates-Es trada R (eds) Estudios primatolgicos en M xico . Uni versidad Veracruzana, Xalapa. 25. Encarnacin, F., Moya, L., Soini, P. y Tapia, J. 1990. La captura de Callitrichidae ( Saguinus y Cebuella ) en la Amazona peruana. In: DGFF/IVITA/OPS (ed) La Primatologa en el Per Investigaciones Primatolgicas (1973-1985) . Imprenta Propacep, Lima, pp 45. Las meliceas del Arbortum Jenaro Herrera (Pro vincia de Requena, Departamento de Loreto, Per). Candollea 39:693. rceas del Arbortum Jenaro Herrera (provincia de Requena, departamento de Loreto, Per). Candollea 36:335. del Arbortum Jenaro Herrera (provincia de Requena, departamento de Loreto, Per). Candollea 37:1. 29. Garber, P. A., Encarnacin, F., Moya, L. and Pruetz, J. D. 1993. Demographic and reproductive patterns in moustached tamarin monkeys ( Saguinus mystax ): implications for reconstructing platyrrhine mating systems. American Journal of Primatology 29:235. 30. Gozalo, A., Moya, L., Ique, C., Moro, J. and En carnacin, F. 1991. Breeding the moustached ta marin ( Saguinus mystax ) on islands. In: Ehara A (ed) Primatology Today . Elsevier Science Publishers, pp 401. 30. Harada Hamel, M. L., Schneider, H., Encarnacin, F., Montoya, E. and Villavicencio, E. 1990. ABO blood groups in two species of Peruvian night monkeys ( Aotus nancymai and Aotus vociferans ). Revis ta Brasileira de Genetica 13:97. 31. Heltne, P. G. and Encarnacin, F. 1990. Evaluacin de recursos primates en Madre de Dios, Per: esta do corriente de primates y estrategias para investi gacin y manejo en el futuro. In: Castro-Rodrguez NE (ed) La Primatologa en el Per Investigaciones Pri matolgicas (1973-1985) . Imprenta Propaceb, Lima, 32. Heymann, E. W., Encarnacin, F. and Canaqun, J. E. (2002) Primates of the Ro Curaray, northern Pe ruvian Amazon. International Journal of Primatology 23:191. 33. Heymann, E. W., Encarnacin, F. and Soini, P. 2002. Notes on the diagnostic characters and geographic distribution of the “yellow-handed” titi monkey, Callicebus lucifer , in Peru. Neotropical Primates 10:124. 34. Inga, H. and Encarnacin, F. 2012. Ecologa de poblaciones naturales de ‘‘camu camu’’( Myrciaria dubia Mc Vaugh) en los lagos Sahua y Supay, in mediaciones de Jenaro Herrera, Ro Ucayali. Xilema 25:29. 35. Josse, C., Navarro, G., Encarnacin, F., Tovar, A., Comer, P., Ferreira, W. A. S., Rodrguez, F., Saito, J., Sanjurjo, J., Dyson, J., Rubin de Celis, E., Zrate, R., Chang, J., Ahuite, M., Vargas, C., Paredes, F., Castro, W., Maco, J. and Retegui, F. 2007. Ecolo gical systems of the Amazon Basin of Peru and Bolivia. Classication and mapping . NatureServe, Arlington. 36. Montoya, E., Mlaga, C., Villavicencio, E., Encar nacin, F., Moro, J., Aquino, R. y Tapia, J. 1990. Reproduccin de Aotus nancymai en cautiverio. In: Castro-Rodrguez NE (ed) La Primatologa en el Per Investigaciones Primatolgicas (1973-1985) . Imprenta 37. Moya, L., Encarnacin F. and Moro, J. 2000. Eva luacin preliminar de las Islas de Panguana y de Muyuy en el ro Amazonas, para la introduccin de Saguinus labiatus . In: San Martn F, Garca P M (eds) La Primatologa en el Per 2

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64 2000. Liberacin de los “pichico pecho anaranjado” ( Saguinus labiatus ) en la Isla de Muyuy. In: San Mar tn F, Garca P M (eds) La Primatologa en el Per 2 , Lima, pp 109. 39. Puertas, P., Encarnacin, F., Aquino, R. y Garca, J. E. 1995. Anlisis poblacional del pichico pecho ana ranjado, Saguinus labiatus , en el sur oriente peruano. Neotropical Primates 3:4. 40. Puertas, P., Aquino, R. y Encarnacin, F. 1992. Uso de alimentos y competicin entre el mono nocturno Aotus vociferans y otros mamferos, Loreto, Per. Fo lia Amaznica 4:135. 41. Puertas, P. E., Aquino, R. and Encarnacin, F. 1995. Sharing of sleeping sites between Aotus vociferans with other mammals in the Peruvian Amazon. Pri mates 42. Rylands, A. B., Matauschek, C., Aquino, R., Encar nacin, F., de la Torre, S., Heymann, E. W. and Mit termeier, R. A. 2011. The range of the golden-mantle tamarin, Saguinus tripartitus distributions and sympatry of four tamarin species in Colombia, Ecuador, and northern Peru. Primates 52:25. 43. Sampaio, M. I. C., Schneider, M. P. C., Barroso, C. M. L., Silva, B. T. F., Schneider, H., Encarnacin, F., Montoya, E. and Salzano, F. M. 1991. Carbonic anhydrase II in New World monkeys. International Journal of Primatology 44. Schneider, H., Harada, M. L., Encarnacin, F. and Montoya, E. 1993. Comparison of ABO blood groups from two species of Peruvian squirrel monkeys ( Saimiri sciureus macrodon , Saimiri bolivien sis peruviensis ) with a natural population of S. b. pe ruviensis -S . s. macrodon hybrids. Revista Brasileira de Genetica 16:661–-669. 45. Schneider, M. P. C., Sampaio, M. I. C., Schneider, H., Encarnacin, F., Montoya, E., Pissinatti, A., Coimbra-Filho, A. and Salzano, F. M. 1994. Com genera of New World monkeys. Revista Brasileira de Genetica 17:321. 46. Schneider, H., Schneider, M. P. C., Sampaio, M. I. C., Montoya, E., Tapia, J., Encarnacin, F., An selmo, N. P. and Salzano, F. M. 1993. Divergence three species of the Callicebus moloch group. Ameri can Journal of Physical Anthropology 90:345. 47. Schneider, M. P. C., Schneider, H., Sampaio, M. I. C., Carvalho-Filho, N. M., Encarnacin, F., Monto ya, E. and Salzano, F. M. 1995. Biochemical diversi ty and genetic distances in the Pitheciinae subfamily (Primates, Platyrrhini). Primates 36:129. sultados preliminares de la crianza de Saguinus mys tax (Primates: Callitrichidae) en un galpn de repro duccin al aire libre. Folia Amaznica 3:139. 49. Silva, B. T. F., Sampaio, M. I. C., Schneider, H., Schneider, M. P. C., Montoya, E., Encarnacin, F. and Salzano, F. M. 1992. Natural hybridization be tween Saimiri taxa in the Peruvian Amazonia. Pri mates 33:10713. 50. Silva, B. T. F., Sampaio, M. I. C., Schneider, H., Schneider, M. P. C., Montoya, E., Encarnacin, F., Protein electrophoretic variability in Saimiri and the question of its species status. American Journal of Pri matology 51. Soini, P., de Soini, M., Aquino, R., Encarnacin, F., Moya, L. y Tapia, J. 1990. Aspectos biolgicos de las especies de los gneros Saguinus y Cebuella . In: Castro-Rodrguez NE (ed) La Primatologa en el Per Investigaciones Primatolgicas (1973-1985) . Imprenta Propaceb, Lima, pp 36. Catlogo de los nombres vernculos de los rboles del Arbortum Jenaro Herrera y alrededores (pro vincia de Requena, departamento de Loreto, Per). Candollea 40:595. Las combretceas y rizoforceas del Arbortum Je naro Herrera (provincia de Requena, departamento de Loreto, Per). Candollea 54. Tapia, J., Encarnacin, F., Aquino, R., Moya, L. y Soini, P. 1990. Censos poblacionales y sacas pe riodicas de primates en la Amazona peruana. In: DGFF/IVITA/OPS (ed) La Primatologa en el Per -Investigaciones Primatolgicas (1973-1985) . Imprenta Propacep, Lima, pp 325.

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65 HORACIO SCHNEIDER (1948-2018) Professor Horacio Schneider, best known for his work on the phylogeny of New World monkeys, was a relentless advocate for the advancement of science in the Amazon. In publish ing over 150 research articles, supervising over 50 graduate students and holding along the years various administrative positions at the Federal University of Par (UFPA), Schnei der helped shape policy and establish excellence in biodiver sity research in Northern Brazil. With his death on Septem ber 27, at 70, the Amazon lost one of its champions. Born in the city of So Paulo in 1948, Schneider entered UFPA in 1969 to study medicine. Inuenced by the research of Francisco Mauro Salzano and eodosius Dobzhansky, Schneider’s interests quickly shifted to biology and he be came a voluntary student researcher for Manuel Ayres, study ing immune system diversity in indigenous populations. He pursued both his Masters and PhD degrees at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, under the supervision of the prominent Brazilian geneticist Francisco Mauro Salzano. In 1984, in his doctoral work, Schneider used protein elec trophoresis to study protein polymorphisms in bualoes. By the late 80’s, assessment of variation at the DNA level was the dominant method used to measure genetic dier ences for generation of phylogenetic trees. In 1990, Schnei der joined the laboratory of Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza at Stanford University, where he learned and later applied molecular phylogenetics to unravel evolutionary relation ships in primates. Upon his return to UFPA in 1992, Schneider had a collab orative grant with Morris Goodman at Wayne State Uni versity, on the broad theme of molecular systematics stud ies in primates. e collaboration lasted nearly a decade, resulting in ve PhD theses and numerous publications, including the rst New World primate phylogeny based on DNA variation in 1993. In 1998, Schneider threw himself into a new challenge: to establish a Biology Research Center in Bragana, a small town in the northeast coast of the State of Par. During the early 2000’s, his group was supported by research fund ing from the Millenium Institute program of the Brazilian Government, as well as from a collaborative partnership between Germany and Brazil (jointly coordinated with Ul rich Saint-Paul, University of Bremen), to conduct research on mangrove dynamics and management (MADAM). is represented a new avenue of investigation and his inter ests in phylogenetics and biogeography greatly expanded to include a myriad of Amazonian invertebrate and verte brate species. In 2005, Schneider was a visiting researcher at the University of Nebraska, Lincoln, where he worked with Guillermo Ort studying phylogenetic relationships in Amazonian cichlids. Schneider held multiple administrative roles in his career, yet he is mostly known for his role as Vice Rector of the UFPA from 2009 to 2017, where he helped spearhead the expansion of infrastructure on UFPA campuses across the State via the federal funding program known as REUNI. Schneider was president of the Brazilian Society of Pri matology from 1991 to 1994 and also largely respected among the Brazilian community of geneticists for being twice elected as president of the Brazilian Society of Genet ics (2000 to 2002 and 2006 to 2008). Over his career, Professor Schneider received numerous academic awards and distinctions, including some of the highest honors granted by Brazilian institutions. He was a full member of the Brazilian National Academy of Sciences since 2002 and received in 2002 the title of Commander of the Order of Scientic Merit (medal given in person by president Fernando Henrique Cardoso) and was later pro moted in 2010 to the Gr-Cruz class. He was also a mem ber of the advisory committee on Genetics at e Brazilian Council of Research and Development (CNPq). In 1989, the journal Nature published an article entitled “An Amazon University for Amazonia”, where it described the Schneider research team’s eort as “quite heroic”, high lighting the diculties surrounding research in the Amazon, describing how “e laboratory roof sometimes leaks, the water and electricity supply are unreliable and 90 percent of their electrophoretic reagents have to be imported. e Uni versity is too poor to aord journal subscriptions”. e ar ticle also underscored the enthusiasm of the research group: “the team is great in spirit”. His resilience in face of adversity was a hallmark of his academic career and personal life. On a more personal level, Professor Schneider was an elegant softspoken man with an everpresent smile, a witty sense of humor, and a fondness for music and poetry. He was a car ing husband, father and grandfather, and an inspiration to his students and collaborators throughout the years. He also possessed an unabating and contagious optimism, a charac ter trait much needed in times such as these. In his passing, science in the Amazon lost one of its most powerful voices. A tree fell in the forest and was heard by everyone. is obituary by Igor Schneider was rst published in Genetics and Molecular Biology , 41, 4, iii-iv (2018).

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66 Horacio Schnider’s primate-related publication list (journal articles and book chapters) 1. Schneider, M. P. C., Sampaio, M. I. D., and Schnei Cebus apella from the Amazonian region. Animal Blood Groups and Bio chemical Genetics 13(2): 10913. 2. Schneider, H., Corvelo, T. C. O., and Hamel, M. L. H. Ce bus apella ). Revista Brasileira de Genetica 3. Schneider, H., Hamel, M. L. H., and Corvelo, T. C. of black-handed tamarins ( Saguinus midas niger ). American Journal of Physical Anthropology 72(1): 39– 42. DOI: 10.1002/Ajpa.1330720105 4. Hamel, M. L. H., Schneider, H., Matayoshi, T., Na vary antigens in a population of capuchin monkeys ( Cebus apella paraguayanus ) from Paraguay. Revista Brasileira De Genetica 11(2): 317. 5. Schneider, H., Sampaio, I., Barroso, C. M. L., Sil va, B. T. F., Warzbort, R., Matayoshi, T., Howlin, Genetic variability in a natural population of Cebus apella paraguayanus (Cebidae, Primatas). Brazilian Journal of Genetics 6. Schneider, M. P. C., Sampaio, M. I. D., Schneider, natural populations of the Brazilian night monkey ( Aotus infulatus ). International Journal of Primatology 10(4): 363-374. DOI: 10.1007/Bf02737422 7. Harada M. L. H., Schneider, H., Encarnacion, F., Montoya, E., and Villavicencio, E. 1990. ABO blood groups in 2 species of Peruvian night monkeys ( Ao tus nancymai and Aotus vociferans ). Revista Brasileira de Genetica 13(1): 97. H. 1990. ABO blood groups in a natural population of Chiropotes satanas. Revista Brasileira de Genetica 13(1): 10713. 9. Rocha, R. M., Harada-Hamel, M. L., and Schneider, H. 1990. ABO blood groups in natural populations of Callitrichidae (Platyrrhini, Primates). Revista Brasileira de Genetica 13(3): 531. Schneider, M. P. C., and Salzano, F. M. 1990. Chro mosome and protein variation in red howler mon keys. Revista Brasileira de Genetica 11. Schneider, H., Sampaio, M. I. C., Schneider, M. P. C., Ayres, J. M., Barroso, C. M. L., Hamel, A. R., Silva, B. T. F., and Salzano, F. M. 1991. Coat color and biochemical variation in Amazonian wild popu lations of Alouatta belzebul. American Journal of Physi cal Anthropology 12. Sampaio, M. I. C., Schneider, M. P. C., Barroso, C. M. L., Silva, B. T. F., Schneider, H., Encarnacion, F., Montoya, E., and Salzano, F. M. 1991. Carbonic anhydrase II In New World monkeys. International Journal of Primatology DOI: 10.1007/Bf02547619 13. Sampaio, I., Schneider, H., Barroso, C. M. L., Silva, B. T. F., Schneider, M. P. C., Encarnacin, F., Mon toya, E., and Salzano, F. M. 1991. Genetic variants of carbonic anhydrase II in New World Monkeys. In: Carbonic Anhydrase . F. Botr, G. Gros, and B. T. Sto rey (eds.), pp.130. VCH Publishers, New York. 14. Sampaio, M. I. C., Barroso, C. M. L., Silva, B. T. F., Seuanez, H., Matayoshi, T., Howlin, E., Nassazi, N., Nagle, C., and Schneider, H. 1991. Genetic vari ability in Cebus appella paraguayanus : Biochemical analysis of seven loci and variation in Glyoxalase I (E.C.4.4.1.5). Primates 32(1): 105. 15. Schneider, H., and Harada, M. L. 1991. ABO blood groups in squirrel monkeys ( Saimiri boliviensis bolivi ensis ). Revista Brasileira de Genetica 16. Schneider, H. 1992. A contribuio dos polimorf ismos bioqumicos ao estudo da microevoluo no gnero Callicebus. Brazilian Journal of Genetics 15: 229. 17. Silva, B. T. F., Sampaio, M. I. C., Schneider, H., Schneider, M. P. C., Montoya, E., Encarnacion, F., and Salzano, F. M. 1992. Natural hybridization be tween Saimiri taxa in the Peruvian Amazonia. Pri mates H., and Schneider, M. P. C. 1992. Protein variation, mosets (Genus Callithrix Erxleben, 1777). Primates 19. Melo, A. C. A., Sampaio, M. I. C., Schneider, M. P. C., and Schneider, H. 1992. Biochemical diversity and genetic distance in two species of the Genus Sa guinus . Primates 33(2): 217.

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67 20. Rocha, R. M., Harada, M. L., and Schneider, H. 1992. ABO blood groups in Cebidae (Platyrrhini, Primates) from the Rio Jamari Region. Primates 21. Schneider, H., Schneider, M. P. C., Sampaio, I., Harada, M. L., Stanhope, M., Czelusniak, J., and Goodman, M. 1993. Molecular phylogeny of the New World monkeys (Platyrrhini, Primates). Mo lecular Phylogenetics And Evolution 2(3): 225. DOI: 10.1006/Mpev.1993.1022 22. Silva, B. T. F., Sampaio, M. I. C., Schneider, H., Schneider, M. P. C., Montoya, E., Encarnacion, F., Callegari-Jacques, S. M., and Salzano, F. M. 1993. Protein electrophoretic variability in Saimiri and the question of its species status. American Journal of Pri matology DOI: 10.1002/Ajp.1350290304 23. Schneider, H., Schneider, M. P. C., Sampaio, M. I. C., Montoya, E., Tapia, J., Encarnacion, F., An selmo, N. P., and Salzano, F. M. 1993. Divergence three species of the Callicebus moloch group. Ameri can Journal of Physical Anthropology 90(3): 345. 24. Sampaio, M. I. D., Schneider, M. P. C., and Schnei der, H. 1993. Contribution of genetic distances studies to the taxonomy of Ateles , particularly Ateles paniscus paniscus and Ateles paniscus chamek. Interna tional Journal of Primatology 25. Schneider, H., Harada, M. L., Encarnacion, F., and Montoya, E. 1993. Comparison of ABO blood groups from two species of Peruvian squirrel mon keys ( Saimiri sciureus macrodon , Saimiri boliviensis peruviensis ) with a natural population of S. b. peruvi ensis S. s. macrodon hybrids. Revista Brasileira de Ge netica 16(3): 661. 26. Schneider, M. P. C., Sampaio, M. I. D., Schneider, H., Encarnacion, F., Montoya, E., Pissinatti, A., Co imbra, A., and Salzano, F. M. 1994. Comparative study of lactate dehydrogenase in 15 genera of New World monkeys. Revista Brasileira de Genetica 17(3): 321-329. 27. Harada, M. L., Schneider, H., Schneider, M. P. C., Sampaio, I., Czelusniak, J., and Goodman, M. 1995. DNA evidence on the phylogenetic systematics of New World Monkeys: Support for the sister group ing of Cebus and Saimiri from two unlinked nuclear genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 4(3): 331. DOI: 10.1006/Mpev.1995.1029 M. P. C., Czelusniak, J., and Goodman, M. 1995. Evidence on primate phylogeny from epsilon-globin Journal of Mo lecular Evolution 40(1): 30. DOI: 10.1007/Bf00166594 29. Meireles, C. M. M., Schneider, M. P. C., Sampaio, M. I. C., Schneider, H., Slightom, J. L., Chiu, C. H., Neiswanger, K., Gumucio, D. L., Czelusniak, J., and Goodman, M. 1995. Fate of a redundant gam ma-globin gene in the atelid clade of New World monkeys: Implications concerning fetal globin gene expression. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sci ences of the United States of America 92(7): 26071. DOI: 10.1073/Pnas.92.7.2607 30. Schneider, M. P. C., Schneider, H., Sampaio, M. I. C., Carvalho Filho, N. M., Encarnacion, F. Montoya, E., and Salzano, F. M. 1995. Biochemical diversity and genetic distances in the Pitheciinae subfamily (Primates, Platyrrhini). Primates 36(1): 129. 31. Schneider, H., and Rosenberger, A. L. 1996. Mol ecules, morphology, and platyrrhine systematics. In: Adaptive Radiations of Neotropical Primates, M. A. Norconk, A. L. Rosenberger, and P. A. Garber (eds.), pp.3. Springer, New York. 32. Schneider, H., Sampaio, I., Harada, M. L., Barroso, C. M. L., Schneider, M. P. C., Czelusniak, J., and Goodman, M. 1996. Molecular phylogeny of the New World monkeys (Platyrrhini, primates) based on two unlinked nuclear genes: IRBP intron 1 and epsilon-globin sequences. American Journal of Physi cal Anthropology 100(2):153. 33. Schneider, H., Schneider, M. P. C., Sampaio, I. 1996. Systematics of the Platyrrhines. In: Systemat ics of the Platyrrhines, S. F. Ferrari, and H. Schneider (eds.), pp.1. Editora da Universidade Federal do Par, Belm. 34. Chiu, C. H., Schneider, H., Schneider, M. P. C., Sampaio, I., Meireles, C., Slightom, J. L., Gumucio, D. L., and Goodman, M. 1996. Reduction of two functional gamma-globin genes to one: An evolu tionary trend in New World monkeys (infraorder Platyrrhini). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 93(13): 6510– 6515. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.93.13.6510 35. Johnson, R. M., Buck, S., Chiu, C. H., Schneider, H., Sampaio, I., Gage, D. A., Shen, T. L., Schneider, M. P. C., Muniz, J. A., Gumucio, D. L., and Good man, M. 1996. Fetal globin expression in new world

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68 44. Meireles, C., Sampaio, I., Schneider, H., Ferrari, S. F., Coimbra, A. F., Pissinatti, A., and Schneider, M. P. C. 1997. A comparative study of eleven protein systems in tamarins, genus Saguinus (Platyrrhini, Callitrichinae). Brazilian Journal of Genetics 20(1): 45. Goodman, M., Porter, C. A., Czelusniak, J., Page, S. L., Schneider, H., Shoshani, J., Gunnell, G., and cation of primates based on DNA evidence comple mented by fossil evidence. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 46. Boissinot, S., Tan, Y., Shyue, S. K., Schneider, H., Sampaio, I., Neiswanger, K., Hewett-Emmett, D., linked triallelic color vision systems in New World monkeys. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sci ences of the United States of America 95(23): 13749– 13754. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.95.23.13749 47. Figueiredo, W. M. B., Carvalho-Filho, N. M., DNA sequences and the taxonomic status of Alouat ta seniculus populations in north eastern Amazonia. Neotropical Primates 6(6): 73. paio, I., Schneider, M. P., Abee, C. R., Williams, L., Hewett-Emmett, D., Sperling, H. G., Cowing, J. Molecular genetics of spectral tuning in New World monkey color vision. Journal of Molecular Evolution 46(6): 697. DOI: 10.1007/PL00006350 49. Meireles, C. M., Czelusniak, J., Sampaio, I., Schnei der, H., Ferrari, S. F., Coimbra, A. F., Pissinatti, A., Muniz, J. A. P. C., Ferreira, H. S., and Schneider, M. taxonomic implications in Callitrichini (Primates, Platyrrhini). Biochemical Genetics 50. Chaves, R., Sampaio, I., Schneider, M. P., Schnei der, H., Page, S. L., and Goodman, M. 1999. The place of Callimico goeldii in the callitrichine phylo genetic tree: Evidence from von Willebrand factor gene intron II sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 13(2): 392. 51. Porter, C. A., Czelusniak, J., Schneider, H., Schnei der, M. P. C., Sampaio, I., and Goodman, M. 1999. silon-globin gene support the relationship of Cal licebus with the Pitheciins. American Journal of monkeys. Journal of Biological Chemistry 271(25): 36. Sampaio, I., Schneider, M. P. C., and Schneider, H. 1996. Taxonomy of the Alouatta seniculus group: Biochemical and chromosome data. Primates 37(1): 37. Sampaio, I., Schneider, H., Barroso, C. M. L., and Schneider, M. P. C. 1996. Polymorphism of the phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD) in New World monkeys: taxonomic implications. Genetics and Molecular Biology H., Schneider, M. P. C., Sampaio, I., and Goodman, M. 1997. Phylogeny and evolution of selected pri mates as determined by sequences of the epsilonInternational Journal of Primatology 39. Tagliaro, C. H., Schneider, M. P. C., Schneider, H., Sampaio, I. C., and Stanhope, M. J. 1997. Marmoset phylogenetics, conservation perspectives, and evo lution of the mtDNA control region. Molecular Biol ogy and Evolution 40. Barroso, C. M. L., Schneider, H., Schneider, M. P. C., Sampaio, I., Harada, M. L., Czelusniak, J., and Goodman, M. 1997. Update on the phylogenetic systematics of new world monkeys: Further DNA evidence for placing the pygmy marmoset ( Cebuella ) within the genus Callithrix. International Journal of Primatology 41. Porter, C. A., Czelusniak, J., Schneider, H., Schnei der, M. P. C., Sampaio, I., and Goodman, M. 1997. Sequences of the primate epsilon globin gene: im plications for systematics of the marmosets and other New World primates. Gene 205(1): 59. 42. Chiu, C. H., Schneider, H., Slightom, J. L., Gu mucio, D. L., and Goodman, M. 1997. Dynamics of regulatory evolution in primate beta globin gene clusters: cis-mediated acquisition of simian gamma fetal expression patterns. Gene 205(1): 47. 43. Boissinot, S., Zhou, Y. H., Qiu, L., Dulai, K. S., Neiswanger, K., Schneider, H., Sampaio, I., Hunt, D. M., Hewett Emmett, D., and Li, W. H. 1997.Ori gin and molecular evolution of the X-linked dupli cate color vision genes in howler monkeys. Zoologi cal Studies 36(4):360.

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69 Primatology 52. Rylands, A., Schneider, H., Langguth, A., Mitter meier, R., Groves, C., and Rodrguez Luna, E. 2000. An assessment of the diversity of the New World primates. Neotropical Primates 53. Schneider, H. 2000. The current status of the New World monkey phylogeny. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias 72(2): 165. DOI: 10.1590/S0001-37652000000200005 54. Tagliaro, C. H., Schneider, M. P. C., Schneider, H., Sampaio, I, and Stanhope, M. 2000. Molecular studies of Callithrix pygmaea (Primates, Platyrrhini) based on transferrin intronic and ND1 regions: im plications for taxonomy and conservation. Genetics and Molecular Biology 23(4): 729. DOI: 10.1590/S1415-47572000000400006 55. Vallinoto, M., Sena, L., Sampaio, I., Schneider, H., and Schneider, M. P. 2000. Mitochondrial DNA-like sequence in the nuclear genome of Saguinus (Callit richinae, Primates): transfer estimation. Genetics and Molecular Biology 23(1): 35. DOI: 10.1590/S1415-47572000000100006 56. Schneider, H., Canavez, F. C., Sampaio, I., Moreira, M. A. M., Tagliaro, C. H., and Seuanez, H. N. 2001. Can molecular data place each neotropical monkey in its own branch? Chromosoma DOI: 10.1007/s004120000106 57. Sena, L., Vallinoto, M., Sampaio, I., Schneider, H., Ferrari, S. F., and Schneider, M. P. C. 2002. Mitochondrial COII gene sequences provide new insights into the phylogeny of marmoset species groups (Callitrichidae, primates). Folia Primatologica 73(5): 240. DOI: 10.1159/000067456 2002. ABO blood groups in the primate species of Cebidae from the Amazon region. Journal of Medical Primatology 31(3): 136. 59. Schneider, I., Schneider, H., Schneider, M. P., and Silva, A. 2004. The prion protein and New World primate phylogeny. Genetics and Molecular Biology 27(4): 505– 510. DOI: 10.1590/S1415-47572004000400007 60. Tagliaro, C. H., Schneider, H., Sampaio, I., Schnei der, M. P. C., Vallinoto, M., and Stanhope, M. 2005. Molecular phylogeny of the genus Saguinus (Platyr rhini, Primates) based on the ND1 mitochondrial gene and implications for conservation. Genetics and Molecular Biology DOI: 10.1590/S1415-47572005000100009 61. Schneider, H., Sampaio, I., Vallinoto, M., Bernardi, J. A. R., Rego, P. S., Araripe, J., and Tagliaro, C. 2005. The phylogeny of the Callitrichinae, with special emphasis on the marmosets (including Cal libela ), Callimico and new information on Brazilian Saguinus. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 62. Vallinoto, M., Araripe, J., do Rego, P. S., Tagliaro, C. H., Sampaio, I., and Schneider, H. 2006. Tocan Sagu inus niger populations. Genetics and Molecular Biology 29(2): 215. DOI: 10.1590/S1415-47572006000200005 63. de Lima C, M. M., Sampaio, I., Vieira, R. S., and Schneider, H. 2007. Spider monkey, muriqui and woolly monkey relationships revisited. Primates 64. Araripe, J., Tagliaro, C. H., Rego, P. S., Sampaio, lar phylogenetics of large-bodied tamarins, Saguinus spp. (Primates, Platyrrhini). Zoologica Scripta 37(5): 65. Schneider, H., Bernardi, J. R., Cunha, D. B., Taglia ro, C. H., Ferrari, S. F., and Sampaio, I. 2009. Cal libella and Cebuella are Mico until proven otherwise. American Journal of Primatology 71: 94. 66. da Cunha, D. B., Monteiro, E., Vallinoto, M., Sam paio, I., Ferrari, S. F., and Schneider, H. 2011. A mo lecular phylogeny of the tamarins (genus Saguinus) containing Alu insertions. American Journal of Physi cal Anthropology 67 Schneider, H., Bernardi, J. A. R., da Cunha, D. B., Tagliaro, C. H., Vallinoto, M., Ferrari, S. F., and Sampaio, I. 2012. A molecular analysis of the evo lutionary relationships in the Callitrichinae, with emphasis on the position of the dwarf marmoset. Zoologica Scripta 41(1): 1-10. DOI: 10.1111/j.1463-6409.2011.00502.x Harada, M.L., Silva, J. M. C., Bates, J. M., and Silva Junior, J. S. E. 2013. A molecular phylogeography of the uacaris ( Cacajao ). In: Evolutionary Biology and Con servation of Titis, Sakis and Uacaris . L. M. Veiga, A. A. Barnet, S. F. Ferrari, and M. A. Norconk (eds.), pp.23– 30. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

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70 69. Schneider, H., and Sampaio, I. 2015. The systemat ics and evolution of New World primates A review. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2013.10.017 70. Martins, A. M. G., Jr., Amorim, N., Carneiro, J. C., Antunes de Mello A. P. R., Sampaio, I., and Schnei der, H. 2015. Alu elements and the phylogeny of capuchin ( Cebus and Sapajus ) monkeys. American Journal of Primatology DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22352 71. Byrne, H., Rylands, A. B., Carneiro, J. C., LynchAlfaro, J. W., Bertuol, F., da Silva, M. N. F., Mes sias, M., Groves, C. P., Mittermeier, R. A., Farias, I., Hrbek, T., Schneider, H., Sampaio, I., and Boubli, J. P. 2016. Phylogenetic relationships of the New World titi monkeys ( Callicebus taxonomy based on molecular evidence. Frontiers in Zoology 72. Carneiro, J., De Sousa E Silva, J., Jr., Sampaio, I., Pissinatti, A., Hrbek, T., Messias, M. R., Rohe, F., Farias, I., Boubli, J., and Schneider, H. 2016. Phy logeny of the titi monkeys of the Callicebus moloch group (Pitheciidae, Primates). American Journal of Primatology DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22559 73. Carneiro, J., da Silva Rodrigues-Filho, L. F., Schnei der, H., and Sampaio, I. 2016. Molecular data high light hybridization in squirrel monkeys ( Saimiri , Cebidae). Genetics and Molecular Biology 39(4): 539– 74. Boubli, J. P., da Silva, M. N. F., Rylands, A. B., Nash, S. D., Bertuol, F., Nunes, M., Mittermeier, R. A., Byrne, H., Silva, F. E., Rohe, F., Sampaio, I., many pygmy marmoset ( Cebuella cies are there? A taxonomic re-appraisal based on new molecular evidence. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2017.11.010 75. Martins-Junior, A. M. G., Carneiro, J. C., Sampaio, netic relationships among Capuchin (Cebidae, Plat yrrhini) lineages: An old event of sympatry explains the current distribution of Cebus and Sapajus . Genetics and Molecular Biology 41(3): 699. 76. Byrne, H., Lynch Alfaro, J. W., Sampaio, I., Farias, Titi monkey biogeography: Parallel Pleistocene spread by and into a post-Pebas Western Amazon. Zoologica Scripta 47(5): 499. DOI: 10.1111/zsc.12300 77. Carneiro, J., Sampaio, I., De Sousa E Silva-Jnior, J., Farias, I., Hrbek, T., Pissinatti, A., Silva, R., Mar tins-Junior, A., Boubli, J., Ferrari, S. F., and Schnei geographic history of the titi monkeys ( Callicebus , Pitheciidae) of eastern Brazil. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 124:10. R Pb BOOKS e Promise of Contemporary Primatology, edited by Riley EP. Routledge press 186pp. ISBN: 978-1629580715. is book argues for a contemporary primatology that recog nizes humans as integral components in the ecologies of primates. is contemporary primatology uses a broad ened theoretical lens and methodological toolkit to study primate behavior and ecology in increasingly anthropo genic contexts and seeks points of intersection and spaces for collaborative exchange across the natural sciences, so cial sciences, and humanities. Content: 1) Introduction: e promise of Contemporary Primatology; 2) Franz Boas, American Anthropology, and the Biological-Sociocultural Divide; 3) Primatology: Becoming Anthropology; 4) Pri matology in Anthropogenic Context: An Extended Evolu tionary Approach; 5) Primatology in Anthropogenic Con texts: e Emergence of Ethnoprimatology; 6) Beyond the Divide: Fieldwork, Reexivity, and Multispecies worlds; 7) Primate Conservation in the Twenty-First Century, and Beyond; 8) Conclusions: Reclaiming Primatology as Anthropology. Studying Primates: How to Design, Conduct and Report Primatological Research. Setchell J. Cambridge University Press. 360pp. ISBN: 978-1108434270. is accessible guide for graduate students and post-doctoral researchers explains how to develop a research question, formulate testable hypotheses and predictions, design and conduct a project and report the results. e focus is on research integrity and ethics throughout, and the book provides practical advice on overcoming common diculties re searchers face. Contents: 1) Asking the questions about primates; 2) Ethics in primatology; 3) Keeping science healthy: research integrity; 4) Inclusive science; 5) Under standing statistical evidence; 6) Communicating ideas in writing; 7) Introduction to the primates; 8) Why study primates?; 9) Identifying a research question; 10) Find ing out what we know; 11) Reading journal articles; 12) Formulating hypothesis and predictions and designing a study; 13) Observing and manipulating; 14) Choosing measures; 15) Planning data analysis; 16) Sampling and statistical power; 17) Checking feasibility and nalizing your plans; 18) Writing research proposal; 19) Collect ing data; 20) Conducting eldwork; 21) Analysing and

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71 interpreting data; 22) General guidance; 23) Submitting to a peer-reviewed journal; 24) Presenting your work at a conference; 25) Conclusions. ARTICLES Arakaki, P. R., Borges, P. A., Hidalgo, R., Teixeira, F., Bra ga, F., et al. 2019. Testicular volume and semen charac teristics in the endangered southern muriqui ( Brachyteles arachnoides ). J. Med. Primatol. 48(4): 244. Arakaki, P. R., Borges Salgado, P. A., Losano, J. D. A., Ro drigues Gonalves D, do Valle R, Garcia Pereira, R. J. and Nichi, M. 2019. Semen cryopreservation in goldenf headed lion tamarin, Leontopithecus chrysomelas. Am. J. Primatol. 81(12). Aristizabal, J. F., Negrete-Yankelevich, S., Macas-Ordnez, R., et al. 2019. Spatial aggregation of fruits explains food selection in a Neotropical primate ( Alouatta pigra ). Sci. Rep. 9: 19452. Armstrong, A. R., Wunschmann, A., Rigatti, L. H., et al. 2019. Clostridium dicile Enterocolitis in a captive Geof froy’s Spider monkey ( Ateles georoyi ) and common Mar mosets ( Callithrix jacchus ). Vet. Pathol. 56(6): 959. Back, J. P. and Biccaf Marques, J. C. 2019. Supplemented howler monkeys eat less wild fruits, but do not change their activity budgets. Am. J. Primatol. 81(9). Barreta Pinto, J., Martinez, J., Bernal, Y., Snchez, R., et al. 2019. Genetic dierentiation and diversity of the Bo livian endemic titi monkeys, Plecturocebus modestus and Plecturocebus olallae. Primates 60(6):565. Barreto, M. A., dos Santos, E., Cardoso, J., Noll, C. A., Moura, M., et al. 2019.Detection of antibodies against Icoaraci, Ilhus, and Saint Louis Encephalitis arboviruses during yellow fever monitoring surveillance in nonfhu man primates ( Alouatta caraya ) in southern Brazil. J. Med. Primatol. 48(4): 211 Beran, M. J., French, K. and Smith, T. R. 2019. Limited evidence of number-space mapping in Rhesus monkeys ( Macaca mulatta ) and Capuchin conkeys ( Sapajus apella ). J. Comp. Psychol. 133(4): 281. Bergstrom, M. L., Hogan, J. D., Melin, A. D. and Fedi gan, L. M. 2019. e nutritional importance of inverte brates to female Cebus capucinus imitator in a highly sea sonal tropical dry forest. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 170(2): 207. Bolt, L. M., Russell, D. G., Coggeshall, E. M. C., et al. 2019. Howling by the river: howler monkey ( Alouatta palliata ) communication in an anthropogenically-altered riparian forest in Costa Rica. Behavior 157(1): 77. Bolt, L. M., Schreier, A. L., Russe, D. G., et al. 2019. Howling on the edge: Mantled howler monkey ( Alouatta palliata ) howling behaviour and anthropogenic edge ef fects in a fragmented tropical rainforest in Costa Rica. Ethology 125(9): 593. Bothwell, E. S., Mendoza, S. P., Ragen, B. J., et al. 2019. Do pamine D1-like receptors regulate agonistic components of pair bond maintenance behaviors in male titi monkeys ( Callicebus cupreus ). Psychoneuroendocrino. 106: 259. Brown, C. J., Mtui, D., Oswald, B. P., Van Leuven, J. T., Vallender, E. J., SchultzfDarken, N., Ross, C. N., Tardif, S. D., Austad, S. N., Forney, L. J. 2019. Comparative genomics of Bidobacterium species isolated from mar mosets and humans. Am. J. Primatol. 81(10). Busia, L., Schaner, C. M. and Aureli, F. 2019. Watch out! Insecure relationships aect vigilance in wild spider mon keys ( Ateles georoyi ). Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 73(12). Campbell Nekaris, K. A. I., Pereira, T. S., Allgas, N. and Shanee, S. 2019. Occupancy modeling for the conser vation assessment of the Peruvian Night monkey ( Aotus miconax ). Primate Conserv. (33): 13. Chaves, P. B., Magnus, T., Jerusalinsky, L., Talebi, M., Stri er, K., Breves, P., Tabacow, F., Teixeira, R. H. F., Moreira, L., Hack, R. O. E., et al. 2019. Phylogeographic evidence for two species of muriqui (genus Brachyteles ) positional behavior and substrate use in wild adult bearded capuchin monkeys ( Sapajus libidinosus ). Am. J. Primatol. 81(12). Corewyn, L. C. 2019. Greeting behaviors in male Alouatta palliata at La Pacica, Costa Rica. Int. J. Primatol. 40 (6): 630. Erkenswick, G. A., Watsa, M., Gozalo, A. S., Dudaie, S., Bailey, L., Muranda, K. S., Kuziez, A. and Parker, P. G. 2019. A multiyear survey of helminths from wild saddle back ( Leontocebus weddelli ) and emperor ( Saguinus im perator ) tamarins. Am. J. Primatol. 81(12). Fam, B. S. O., Reales, G., VargasfPinilla, P., Par, P., Vis cardi, L. H., Sortica, V. A., Felkl, A. B., Franco, A. O., Lucion, A. B., CostafNeto, C. M., Pissinatti, A., Salzano, F. M., PaixofCrtes, V. R. and Bortolini, M. C. 2019. AVPR1b variation and the emergence of adaptive phe notypes in Platyrrhini primates. Am. J. Primatol. 81(8). Fernandes Junior, O., de Oliveira, G. E., Santos, F. M., et al. 2019. Behavioral activities and diet of Azaras’s ca puchin monkey, Sapajus cay (Illiger, 1815), in a forest remnant of the Brazilian Cerrado. Stud. Neotrop. Fauna E. DOI: 10.1080/01650521.2019.1708228 . Ferraro, M. A. R., Molina, C. V., Gris, V. N., Kierul, M. C. M., Galvo Bueno, M., et al. 2019. Early reversal of ketamine/dexmedetomidine chemical immobilization by atipamezole in goldenfheaded lion tamarins ( Leontopithe cus chrysomelas ). J. Med. Primatol. 48(6): 351. Firrman, J., Liu, L. S., Tanes, C., Bittinger, K., Mahalak, K. and Rinaldi, W. 2019. Metagenomic assessment of the Cebus apella gut microbiota. Am. J. Primatol. 81(10). Garber, P. A., Caselli, C. B., McKenney, A. C., Abreu, F., De la Fuente, M. F., Arajo, A., Arruda, M. F., Souto, A., Schiel, N. and BiccafMarques, J. C. 2019. Trait varia tion and trait stability in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) inhabiting ecologically distinct habitats in north eastern Brazil. Am. J. Primatol. 81(7). Garber, P. A., Mallott, E. K., Porter, L. M. and Gomez, A. 2019. e gut microbiome and metabolome of saddleback tamarins ( Leontocebus weddell i): insights into the foraging ecology of a smallfbodied primate. Am. J. Primatol. 81(10).

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72 Gomes Almeida, T. T., Barros Monteiro, M. V., Guima raes, R. C., et al. 2019. Eect of gluten diet on blood innate immune gene expressions and stool consistency in Spix’s Saddleback Tamarin ( Leontocebus fuscicollis ) raised in captivity. Mol. Biol. Rep. 46(4): 3617. Gusmo, A. C., Messias, M. R., Carneiro, J. C., Schnei der, H., de Alencar, T. B., et al. 2019. A new species of Titi Monkey, Plecturocebus. Byrne et al., 2016 (Primates, Pitheciidae), from Southwestern Amazonia, Brazil. Pri mate Conserv. (33): 21. Hardin, A. M. 2019. Genetic correlations in the dental di mensions of Saguinus fuscicollis. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 169(3): 557. Heimbauer, L. A., Johns, T. N. and Weiss, D. J. 2019. In ferential reasoning in the visual and auditory modalities by Cotton-Top Tamarins ( Saguinus oedipus ). J. Comp. Psychol. 133(4): 496. Hogan, J. D., Jack, K. M., Campos, F. A., Kalbitzer, U. and Fedigan, L. M. 2019. Group versus population level demographics: an analysis of comparability using long term data on wild whiteffaced capuchin monkeys ( Cebus capucinus imitator ). Am. J. Primatol. 81(7). Kajokaite, K., Whalen, A., Panchanathan, K. and Perry, S. 2019. White-faced capuchin monkeys use both rank and relationship quality to recruit allies. Anim. Behav. 154: 161. Kawaguchi, Y., Kuroshima, H. and Fujita, K. 2019. Age categorization of conspecic and heterospecic faces in Capuchin Monkeys ( Sapajus apella ). J. Comp. Psychol. 133(4): 502. Kawai, N., Nakagami, A., Yasue, M., et al. 2019. Common Marmosets ( Callithrix jacchus ) evaluate third-party social interactions of human actors but Japanese monkeys ( Ma caca fuscata ) do not. J. Comp. Psychol. 133(4): 488. Kishimoto, R., Iwasaki, S. and Fujita, K. 2019. Do Capu chins ( Sapajus apella ) know how well they will remem ber? Analysis of delay length-dependency with memory strategies. J. Comp. Psychol. 133(4): 340. Lima, M., Mendes, S. L. and Strier, K. B. 2019. Habitat use in a population of the Northern Muriqui ( Brachyteles hypoxanthus ). Int. J. Primatol. 40: 470. Mareike, C. A., Burrell, A. S., Orkin, J. D., et al. 2019. Dupli cation and parallel evolution of the pancreatic ribonuclease gene (RNASE1) in folivorous non-colobine primates, the howler monkeys ( Alouatta spp.). Sci. Rep. 9: 20366. Martinez, M. F., Santini, M. S., Kowalewski, M., et al. 2019. Phlebotominae in peri-domestic and forest envi ronments inhabited by Alouatta caraya in northeastern Argentina. Med. Vet. Entomol. 33(3): 367. Martins, E. M., Moura, A. C., Finkenwirth, C., et al. 2019. Food sharing patterns in three species of Callitrichid monkeys ( Callithrix jacchus, Leontopithecus chrysomelas, Saguinus midas ): individual and species dierences. J. Comp. Psychol. 133(4): 474. McCoy, D. E., Frye, B. M., Kotler, J., Burkart, J. M., Burns, M., Embury, A., Eyre, S., Galbusera, P., Hooper, J., Idoe, A., Lpez Goya, A., Mickelberg, J., Quesada, M. P., Ste venson, M., Sullivan, S., Warneke, M., Wojciechowski, S., Wormell, D., Haig, D., Tardif, S. D. 2019. A com parative study of litter size and sex composition in a large dataset of Callitrichine monkeys. Am. J. Primatol. 81(9). McKinney, T. 2019. Ecological and behavioural exibility of Mantled Howlers ( Alouatta palliata ) in response to an thropogenic habitat disturbance. Folia Primatol. 90(6): 456. McNamara, A., Dunham, N. T., Shapiro, L. J. and Young, L. W. 2019. e eects of natural substrate discontinui ties on the quadrupedal gait kinematics of freefranging Saimiri sciureus. Am. J. Primatol. 81(9). Medeiros, K., Bastos, M. and Jones, G. 2019. Behavior, diet, and habitat use by blonde Capuchin monkeys ( Sa pajus avius ) in a coastal area prone to ooding: direct observations and camera trapping. Int. J. Primatol. 40: 511. Milton, K., Armitage, D. W. and Sousa, W. P. 2019. Suc cessional loss of two key food tree species best explains decline in group size of Panamanian howler monkeys ( Al ouatta palliata ). Biotropica 51(4): 600. Miranda, T. S., Muniz, C. P., Moreira, S. Bp, et al. 2019. Eco-epidemiological prole and molecular characteriza tion of simian Foamy Virus in a recently-captured in vasive population of Leontopithecus chrysomelas (Gold en-Headed Lion Tamarin) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Viruses-Basel 11(10): 931. Molina, C. V., Bueno, M. G., Kierul, M. C. M., Pis sinatti, A., Cunha, M. P. V., et al. 2019. Spontaneous meningoencephalitis by Staphylococcus aureus in an infant goldenfheaded lion tamarin ( Leontopithecus chrysomelas ). J. Med. Primatol. 48(6): 370. Muir, J., Barnett, A., Svensson, M. S. 2019. e vocal rep ertoire of Golden-Faced Sakis, Pithecia chrysocephala , and the relationship between context and call structure. Int. J. Primatol. 40(6): 721. Murphy, A. M., Ross, C. N. and BlissfMoreau, E. 2019. Noninvasive cardiac psychophysiology as a tool for trans lational science with marmosets. Am. J. Primatol. 81(9). Oliveira Da Silva, G. A., Faltico, T., Nash, S. D. et al. 2019. A green racer snake ( Philodryas nattereri, Colubri dae ) killed but not eaten by a blonde capuchin monkey ( Sapajus avius , Cebidae). Primates 60(5): 459. Ordez-Gmez, J. D., Santillan-Doherty, A. M. and Hammerschmidt, K. 2019. Acoustic variation of spider monkey ( Ateles georoyi ) contact calls is related to caller isolation and aects listeners’ responses. Plos ONE. Orkin, J. D., Webb, E. S. and Melin, A. D. 2019. Small to modest impact of social group on the gut microbiome of wild Costa Rican capuchins in a seasonal forest. Am. J. Primatol. 81(10). Painter, M. C., Russell, R. C. and Judge, P. G. 2019. Capu chins ( Sapajus apella ) and Squirrel monkeys ( Saimiri sciu reus ) fail to attend to the functional spatial relationship between a tool and a reward. J. Comp. Psychol. 463. Parrish, A. E., Beran, M. J. and Agrillo, C. 2019. Lin ear numerosity illusions in capuchin monkeys ( Sapajus apella ), rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta ), and humans ( Homo sapiens ). Anim. Cogn. 22(5): 883.

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73 Pereira Gonalves, G. H., de Souza, J. C., da Silva, H., Rezende, A., Schmidt, F. et al. 2019. Hematological and serum biochemistry data on southern brown howler monkeys ( Alouatta guariba clamitans ) in captivity in Bra zil. J. Med. Primatol. 48(6): 313. Power, M. L., Adams, J., Solonika, K., et al. 2019. Diet, di gestion and energy intake in captive common marmosets ( Callithrix jacchus ): research and management implica tions. Sci. Rep. 9(1): 12134. Price, E., Coleman, R., Ahsmann, J., Glendewar, G., Hunt, J., Smith, T. and Wormell, D. 2019. Individual, social, and environmental factors aecting salivary and fecal cortisol levels in captive pied tamarins (Saguinus bi color ). Am. J. Prim. 81(8). Riviere, J., Kurt, A. and Meunier, H. 2019. Choice under risk of gain in Tufted Capuchin monkeys ( Sapajus apella ): a comparison with young children ( Homo sapiens ) and Mangabey monkeys ( Cercocebus torquatus torquatus ). J. Neurosci. Psychol. E. 12(3): 159. Rocha, P., Borges, P. A., De Agostini, S. J. D., Marcel, L., Blank, H., Nichi, M., Pereira, R. J. G. 2019. Assessment of dierent sperm functional tests in goldenfheaded lion tama rins ( Leontopithecus chrysomelas ). Am. J. Primatol. 81(8). Salleng, K. J., Apple, T. M., Yu, E. N. Z. and Himmel, L. E. 2019. Spontaneous pulmonary adenocarcinoma and subcu taneous cavernous hemangiomas arising in a squirrel mon key ( Saimiri sciureus ). J. Med. Primatol. 48(6): 374. Santos, E. R., Ferrari, S. F., Beltro-Mendes, R. B., et al. 2019. Anointing with commercial insect repellent by free-ranging Cebus capucinus in Manuel Antonio Nation al Park, Quepos, Costa Rica). Primates 60(6): 559. Schrock, A. E., Leard, C., Lutz, M. C., Meyer, J. S. and Paxton, R. 2019. Aggression and social support predict longfterm cortisol levels in captive tufted capuchin mon keys ( Cebus [Sapajus] apella ). Am. J. Primatol. 81(7). Serrano-Villavicencio, J. E. and Silveira, L. F. 2019. Notes on Lagothrix avicauda (Primates: Atelidae): oldest known specimen and the importance of the revisions of museum specimens. Zoologia 36: e29951. Snodderly, D. M., Ellis, K. M., Lieberman, S. R., Link, A., Fernandez-Duque, E. and Di Fiore, A. 2019. Initiation of feeding by four sympatric Neotropical primates ( At eles belzebuth, Lagothrix lagotricha poeppigii , Plecturocebus (Callicebus) discolor , and Pithecia aequatorialis ) in Ama zonian Ecuador: Relationships to photic and ecological factors. Plos ONE. Souza-Alves, J. P. and Mourthe, I. 2019. Terrestrial behav ior in Titi Monkeys ( Callicebus, Cheracebus , and Plec turocebus ): potential correlates, patterns, and dierences between genera. Int. J. Primatol. 40: 553. Takehara, S., Zeredo, J. L., Kumei, Y., Kagiyama, K., Fuka sawa, K., et al. 2019. Characterization of oral microbiota in marmosets: Feasibility of using the marmoset as a hu man oral disease model. Plos ONE. Vaughan, E., Le, A., Casey, M., Workman, K. P. and Lacreuse, A. 2019. Baseline cortisol levels and social be havior dier as a function of handedness in marmosets ( Callithrix jacchus ). Am. J. Primatol. 81(9). Versace, E., Rogge, J. R., Shelton-May, N., et al. 2019. Po sitional encoding in cotton-top tamarins ( Saguinus oedi pus ). Anim. Cogn. 22(5): 825. Walker, N. J., Schaer-Smith, D., Swenson, J. J., et al. 2019. Improved connectivity analysis using multiple low-cost paths to evaluate habitat for the endangered San Martin titi monkey ( Plecturocebus oenanthe) in northcentral Peru. Landscape Ecol. 34(8): 1859. Wooldridge, L. M. and Kangas, B. D. 2019. An assay of drugfinduced emesis in the squirrel monkey ( Saimiri sciureus ). J. Med. Primatol. 48(4): 236. Zrcher, Y., Willems, E. P. and Burkart, J. M. 2019. Are dialects socially learned in marmoset monkeys? Evidence from translocation experiments. Plos ONE . M PRIMATE SOCIETY OF GREAT BRITAIN MEET ING, SRING 2020 e PSGB Spring meeting is being hosted by Liverpool John Moores University on the 23-24 April, 2020. e theme is Latest Advances in Primatology. Seehttps://www. psgb-ljmu2020.co.uk/for further information. 43 RD MEETING OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF PRIMATOLOGISTS e 43 rd meeting of the American Society of Primatologists will be held in Denver, Colorado, May 28 31, 2020 at the Sheraton Denver Downtown Hotel. Abstracts are due January 21, 2020. For more info go to: https://asp.org/ meetings/conference.cfm JOINT MEETING OF THE INTERNATIONAL PRIMATOLOGICAL SOCIETY AND THE LATIN AMERICAN SOCIETY OF PRIMATOLOGISTS e 28 th edition of the IPS congress and the IV congress of the SLAPRIM will be held together in Quito, Ecuador, from August 15-21, 2021 . For more information go to https://ipsquito.com/registration/

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Scope e journal aims to provide a basis for conservation information relating to the primates of the Neotropics. We welcome texts on any aspect of primate conservation, including articles, thesis abstracts, news items, recent events, recent publications, primatological society information and suchlike. Contributions Manuscripts may be in English, Spanish or Portuguese, should be prepared with MS Word, and must use page and line numbering. e full name and address for each author should be included. Please avoid abbreviations and acronyms without the name in full. Authors whose rst language is not English should have their manuscripts written in English carefully reviewed by a native speaker. Send all contributions to BOTH: Erwin Palacios, Conservacin Internacional – Colombia, e-mail: epalacios@conservation.org and to Jessica Ward Lynch, University of California, Los Angeles, email: jlynchalfaro@g.ucla.edu. Manuscripts that do not conform to the formal requirements (formatting, style of references, etc.) will be returned to authors without review. ey can be resubmitted, provided all formal requirements are met. Articles. Each issue of Neotropical Primates will include up to three full articles, limited to the following topics: Taxonomy, Systematics, Genetics (when relevant for systematics and conservation), Bioge ography, Ecology and Conservation. Text for full articles should be typewritten, double-spaced with no less than 12 cpi font (preferably Times New Roman) and 3-cm margins throughout, and should not exceed 25 pages in length (including references). Please include an abstract in the same language as the rest of the text (English, Spanish or Portuguese) and (optional) one in Portuguese or Spanish (if the text is written in English) or English (if the text is written in Spanish or Portuguese). Tables and illustrations should be limited to six, except in cases where they are fundamental for the text (as in species descriptions, for example). Full articles will be sent out for peer-review. For articles that include protein or nucleic acid sequences, authors must deposit data in a publicly available database such as GenBank/EMBL/ DNA Data Bank of Japan, Brookhaven, or Swiss-Prot, and provide an accession number for inclusion in the published paper. Short articles. ese manuscripts are usually reviewed only by the editors. A broader range of topics is encouraged, including such as behavioral research, in the interests of informing on general research activities that contribute to our understanding of platyrrhines. We encourage reports on projects and conservation and research programs (who, what, where, when, why, etc.) and most particularly information on geographical distributions, locality records, and protected areas and the primates that occur in them. Text should be typewritten, doublespaced with no less than 12 cpi (preferably Times New Roman) font and 3-cm margins throughout, and should not exceed 12 pages in length (including references). Figures and maps. Articles may include small black-and-white photographs, high-quality gures, and high-quality maps. (Resolution: 300 dpi. Column widths: one-column = 8-cm wide; two-columns = 17cm wide). Please keep these to a minimum. We stress the importance of providing maps that are publishable. When reporting geographic coordinates please utilize one of the following formats consistently throughout the manuscript: DMS (degrees, minutes, seconds) 4 ’ 36 ’ 19.1 ’’ N, 74 ’ 20.7 ’’ W or DD (Decimal Degrees) 4.605306, -74.055750. Tables. Tables should be double-spaced, using font size 10, and prepared with MS Word. Each table should have a brief title. News items. Please send us information on projects, eld sites, courses, esis or Dissertations recently defended, recent publications, awards, events, activities of Primate Societies, etc. References. Examples of house style may be found throughout this journal. In-text citations should be rst ordered chronologically and then in alphabetical order. For example, “(Fritz, 1970; Albert, 1980, 2004; Oates, 1981; Roberts, 2000; Smith, 2000; Albert et al., 2001)” In the list of references, the title of the article, name of the journal, and editorial should be written in the same language as they were published. All conjunctions and prepositions (i.e., “and”, “In”) should be written in the same language as rest of the manuscript (i.e., “y” or “e”, “En” or “Em”). is also applies for other text in references (such as “PhD thesis”, “accessed” – see below). Please refer to these examples when listing references: Journal article Stallings, J. D. and Mittermeier, R. A. 1983. e black-tailed marmoset ( Callithrix argentata melanura ) recorded from Paraguay. Am. J. Primatol . 4: 159. Chapter in book Brockelman, W. Y. and Ali, R. 1987. Methods of surveying and sampling forest primate populations. In: Primate Conservation in the Tropical Rain Forest , C. W. Marsh and R. A. Mittermeier (eds.), pp.23. Alan R. Liss, New York. Book Napier, P. H. 1976. Catalogue of Primates in the British Museum (Natural History) . Part 1: Families Callitrichidae and Cebidae. British Museum (Natural History), London. esis/Dissertation Wallace, R. B. 1998. e behavioural ecology of black spider monkeys in north-eastern Bolivia. Doctoral thesis, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK. Report Muckenhirn, N. A., Mortensen, B. K., Vessey, S., Fraser, C. E. O. and Singh, B. 1975. Report on a primate survey in Guyana. Unpublished report, Pan American Health Organization, Washington, DC. Website UNESCO. 2005. UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Programme. United Nations Educational, Scientic, and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO), Paris. Website: http://www.unesco.org/mab/index.htm. Accessed 25 April 2005. (“Acessada em 25 de abril de 2005” and “Consultado el 25 de abril de 2005” for articles in Portuguese and Spanish respectively). For references in Portuguese and Spanish: “and” changes to “e” and “y” for articles in Portuguese and Spanish respectively. “In” changes to “Em” and “En” for articles in Portuguese and Spanish respectively. “Doctoral thesis” changes to “Tese de Doutoramento” and “Tesis de Doctorado” for articles in Portuguese and Spanish respectively. “MSc esis” changes to “Dissertao de Mestrado” and “Tesis de Maestra” for articles in Portuguese and Spanish respectively. “Unpublished report” changes to “Relatrio Tcnico” and “Reporte no publicado” for articles in Portuguese and Spanish respectively. Notes to Contributors

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en-USNeotropical Primatesen-USA Journal and Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Groupen-US Vol. 25(1), December 2019en-USContentsen-USArticlesen-USDemographic Dynamics of Peruvian Black-Faced Spider Monkeys en-US(Ateles chamek) en-US en-US Reintroduced in the Peruvian Amazonen-US Farah Carrasco-Rueda and Ral Bello þ. ........................................................................................................................................... en-US1en-US Prolonged Inter-Specic Association Between en-USAteles fusciceps fuscicepsen-US and en-USAlouatta palliata aequatorialisen-US en-US en-US (Atelidae)en-US in a Forest Fragment In North Western Ecuadoren-US Paola Moscoso Rosero, Sam Shanee, Santiago Burneo, Nathalia Fuentes, Felipe Alfonso-Corts, Martn Obando and Diego G. Tirira þ. .... en-US11en-US Demography, Habitat Use and Activity Budget of A Wild Group of Black-Faced Black Spider Monkeys en-US en-US (Ateles chamek)en-US in Las Piedras, South-Eastern Peren-US en-US Liselot Roos Lange and Nicola Marie Robson þ. ............................................................................................................................... en-US21en-US Densidad Poblacen-USien-USonal y Composicin de Grupos deen-US en-USAotus nancymaaeen-US een-USn reas de Aprovechamiento en-US en-US de la Especie para Experimentacin Biomdica en el Trapecio Amaznico Colombianoen-US Nstor Roncancio-Duque, Mariela Osorno, Liza M. Caldern-Espitia, Amilvia Acosta-Castaeda, en-US en-US Lina M. Garca-Loaiza, Natalia Gmez-Melendro and Beatriz E. Henao þ. ...................................................................................... en-US30en-US First Records of Gastrointestinal Parasites in Woolly Monkeys en-US(Lagothrix lagothricha) en en-US in Colombia, from Wild, Captive and Reintroduced Individualsen-US Camilo Quiroga-Gonzlez, Elisa Jimnez, Nelson F. Galvis, Mnica A. Ramrez, Mario Ortiz, en-US en-US Camila Gonzalez and Pablo R. Stevenson þ. ................................................................................................................................... en-US38en-USShort Articlesen-USFur Rubbing Behaviour in Free Ranging Beni Titi Monkeys en-US(en-USPlecturocebus modestusen-US)en-US en-USin Boliviaen-US Jess Martnezen-US, en-USFreddy Zenteno-Ruizen-US, en-USLaura Moyaen-US, en-USPamela Carvajalen-US and en-USRobert Wallace þ. ................................................................ en-US44en-US Geographical and Altitudinal Range Extension of White-Bellied Spider Monkeys en-US(Ateles belzebuth) en-US en-US ien-USn the Northern Andes of Colombiaen-US Victoria Andrea Barrera, Camila Valds Cardona, en-USLuisa Mesaen-US, en-USSebastian Nossaen-US anden-US Andrs Link þ. ..................................................... en-US48en-US Primer Registro de en-USPithecia millerien-US (Allen, 1914) en la Baja Bota Caucana, Corregimiento de Miraor, en-US en-US Municipio de Piamonte, Caucaen-US Laura Surezen-US and en-USHugo Mantilla-Meluk þ. .................................................................................................................................... en-US53en-US Evidence of Opossum (en-USDidelphisen-US sp.) Predation by White-Fronted Capuchinsen-US (Cebus yuracus)en-US in the Copalln en-US en-US Private Conservation Area, Amazonas, Peren-US Karen Pedersenen-US, en-USSam Shaneeen-US and en-USChristian Miguel Olivera Tarifeo þ. .............................................................................................. en-US54en-US Ampliacin del rea de Distribucin del Mono Maicero Cachn en-US(Sapajus apella)en-US: Nuevo Registro en en-US en-US el Parque Nacional Natural Las Hermosas-Gen-US VCen-US , Tolima, Colombiaen-US Pablo Payaen-US, en-USJess-A Snchez-Cen-US., en-USCarolina Guzmn-V., en-USGermn Rodrguez-P.en-US and en-USNstor Roncancio-Den-US. þ. ............................................ en-US57en-US News þ. ...................................................................................................................................................................................... en-US59en-US Obituaries þ. .............................................................................................................................................................................. en-US6en-US1en-US Recent Publications þ. ............................................................................................................................................................... en-US70en-US Meetings þ. ................................................................................................................................................................................ en-US73