"How do I get started with no-till?"
OKAY ... so you've decided to give no-till forth over your land to prepare an overfarming a try. That's great, but what do worked pulverized seedbed.
"There's got you do first? How do you get started? Obviously, you've read a lot about noto be a In a way, the hardest part is already till, or have seen some no-till crops, or you
better way" behind you. It's not an easy decision to wouldn't have decided to try it. So this
depart from the traditional way of doing publication isn't intended to sell you on things. Especially if you're among the first the idea. Rather, it's designed to take you to change. step by step through your first no-till
But even if you're the first in your area experiences ... what you need, how you
to try planting without tillage, you're not use it and what you can expect.
alone. Thousands of farmers have proven The first thing you need is conviction in Hard part
no-till to themselves. And thousands more your belief that there is a better way. To behind you
are beginning to realize just what you came help keep you from sliding backward toto realize, that "there's got to be a better ward the plow, let's review the reasons why
way" than riding your tractor back and you've decided to give no-till a try.
YOU'VE PROBABLY HEARD all the ad- ... and which type herbicides to use to
vantages before ... that no-till can and control them.
does save fuel, save soil, save labor, save While no-tillage refers to a wide variety Farm more water, save machinery costs, let you farm of crop production systems using reduced land most land-even hilly land-and much or limited amounts of tillage, it basically
more. Chances are, one or two of the above boils down to substituting herbicide for Save soil
benefits are most important to you. horsepower.
But you do have to approach things To confirm your decision to try nosomewhat differently to succeed with no- tillage, compare these advantages with the
tillage. When farming with one trip across a way you farm now:
field, you don't get the opportunity to 0 No-till saves water and soil. With
"bury" your mistakes like you do with a no-tillage, you can expect 80% to 90% less moldboard plow, or even a chisel plow or runoff of water and an even greater reducdisc. tion in soil erosion. Plus, you'll get only
You have to rely completely on herbi- half the usual direct evaporation losses
cides for weed control in most instances. from your fields with no-till.
You have to know what weeds you have The result is 20% to 25% more water
available for crop growth and higher yields. 9 No-till is ideally suited to the young
Many Soil Conservation Service workers farmer just getting started -or any farmer
say no-till can also replace contour farming, needing to replace a major share of his farm terraces and strip cropping in their areas ... machinery. With no-till, you can trim your and do the same erosion control job much machinery investment by around 40%.
more cheaply. You simply do not need equipment as big
0 In many areas of the country, this or as much equipment to farm the no-till
Save water savings of available moisture can be turned way.
into higher crop yields with use of no-till. 0 1 instead of a barn full of equipment, all Save
Work at Virginia Polytechnic Institute, for you need is a medium size tractor, planter, machinery
example, shows a 20.5% yield boost with sprayer and combine ... and you're in busno-till corn over conventional corn. iness. You can forget about the moldboard
0 No-till can reduce the number of field plow, huge horsepower tractor, disc, drag,
operations along with labor and machinery chisel plow, cultivator, and other equipment.
requirements. Instead of making a half 0 You'll also enjoy better flotation of
dozen trips across your fields, you may planting and harvesting equipment with
make as few as two or three with no-till- no-till. The protective mulch on the surface just planting, fertilizing and harvesting. lets you plant earlier and harvest earlier
0 No-till lets you expand without adding when wet conditions normally keep many
more labor-or machinery. If you had 792 conventional tillage farmers out of the
Savelabor hours of labor available, you could plant field. No-till also cuts down compaction.
400 acres of conventional ly-ti I led corn. But 0 In areas where double-cropping is with 792 hours of labor, you could handle practical, double-cropping with no-till 1,015 acres of corn planted via no-tillage. opens up new profit horizons. Planting
0 With fuel getting more scarce and begins as the first crop is harvested-the
higher priced, no-till really shines. Univ. of extra couple of weeks this gives you often Nebraska data shows it takes 5.33 gal. of means the difference between making a Save fuel diesel fuel to plant an acre of convention- second crop or not before cold weather ally-tilled corn. This can be reduced to only arrives. The profit potential with double.90 gal. per acre by switching to no-ti If. cropping is limited only by your imaginaSo on 400 acres of corn, you save 1,772 tion and your location.
gal. of diesel fuel by planting via no-tillage. No-till will let you farm more intenWith high fuel prices, that really adds up. At sively. Some of your sloping land where 90d per gal. for diesel fuel, you would save erosion is a problem can be returned to $1,594.80 with 400 acres. effective row crop production with no-till.
In summary, no-till has a number of Plus much 400 ACRES OF CORN advantages for farmers all over the country. more
You'll find more benefits than we have
Labor Fuel listed here. While it takes a little extra manConventional 792 hours 2,132 gal. agement to make it work, the move to less
No-till 312 360 and less tillage definitely is gaining momenSavings 480 ($1,440) 1,772 ($886) tum. USDA officials say less than 7% of all
U.S. row crops will be planted with conven792 hours labor= 1,015 acres no-till corn tional tillage by the year 2010. (There's more on thison the back of this publication.)
"'Where can I use no-till?"
No-tillage is working on most types of "No-tillage, when properly performed, has
soil found throughout the country. the highest yield potential of any tillage
choice on some soils. No-tillage planting is also possible whenever the soil is dry enough to plow, a significant factor in years with wet springs."
Moderately well to excessively well Well drained, these silt loam, loam, sandy loam drained
- or fine loamy sand surface textured soils land best
are relatively low in organic matter. They
-01 include glaciated, residual and terraced
Proper drainage is important. Ohio re4 searchers say the amount of soil drainage is
one of the most important factors in deciding whether to no-till or not. You must consider both surface drainage and 77. internal soil drainage.
"On well drained and moderately well drained soils, no-tillage is equal to conventional tillage for most cropping sequences Mulch is and decidedly better following sod," says critical Triplett. "Mulch cover, however, must be at a satisfactory level for this to apply.
"On poorly drained soils, yields of notillage corn following crops other than corn have generally been equal to corn planted Grow However, it does work best on soils with in fall or winter plowed soil."
any crop good drainage, even though a few farmers Well drained soils generally require a
turn out good yields from fields suffering mulch covering to provide needed erosion from drainage problems. As a rule of control. The mulch also helps reduce evapthumb, if the soil you select is productive oration from the soil surface.
with tillage, it will be productive without
"The surface has just been scratched as
far as no-tillage potential in Ohio is concerned," says Dr. G. B. Triplett, Jr., agronomist at the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center at Wooster, Ohio.
"'What type of seedbed can I use?"
SINCE no-till crops can be planted into a 0 Another popular seedbed is used when wide variety of different seedbeds, you double-cropping soybeans, grain sorghum, need to select the kind of seedbeds that are short season corn, millet or other crops
best for your particular farming situation. into small grain stubble. The grain can be Four basic
0 No-till corn, sorghum and other crops harvested in June and the second crop seedbeds
can be planted into established sod, an planted the same day. Double-cropping is annual cover crop seeded the previous fall generally successful as far north as the
or into old crop residue such as corn stalks, latitude of Springfield, 111.
sorghum stalks, grain stubble or soybean 0 The stubble-plant system is' ideal for
stubble. Each type of crop cover has its farmers short on labor and equipment in own advantages and disadvantages. the spring. It works well when wet weather
a minimum of soil disturbance and spray off the weeds with a mixture of ORTHO Paraquat CL and residual herbicides registered for that crop before the crop emerges.
- The stale seedbed system allows the weeds to come up considerably ahead of planting. Then the weeds are sprayed off
-with Paraquat before the crop emerges.
This system can save you valuable time at planting. It is easier on your available labor, equipment and timing since you can till in the off-season. You simply work the fields early and let the weeds grow back.
Then you spray them off with Paraquat at planting time.
The result is no delays at planting while No delays seedbeds are being tilled and no waiting for at planting rain to replace soil moisture lost by tillage.
These are the basic types of different seedbeds you can try with the various makes tillage impossible at planting time. forms of no-tillage or minimum tillage.
While it will work on many different One word of caution: Avoid no-tilling in
types of soils, it has been used with fields where perennial weeds such as Johnsoybeans grown on the buckshot soils songrass, Dallisgrass and Bermudagrass are
found in the Mississippi Delta states. problems. These difficult-to-control perennial
With this system, the previous crop weeds frequently re-grow too rapidly to allow
stubble is left undisturbed. You plant with success with no-tillage.
"Which varieties are best?"
WHILE NO-TILLAGE is much like conven- ventional tillage are also likely to be best
tional crop production, it's different with no-tillage.
enough that some change in variety selection usually pays off.
Rely on Even though selection of corn hybrids is
your plots still mainly the same "pick and choose"
task you go through with conventional
tillage planting, some no-tillers feel it is essential to pay more attention to a few
These growers suggest that you pay more
attention to cold tolerance, resistance to leaf diseases, germination, seedling vigor and standability. Good, uniform emergence
is also valuable in corn planted via no- This is usually necessary to end up with
tillage. Yet some seed company agron- your desired stand at harvest time.
omists believe the best hybrids under con- Most early corn varieties are especially
suited to no-till. This is due to the fact that A good rule of thumb given by agronthese varieties have extremely good cold omists is to plant the latest variety that will tolerance and fast emergence. safely mature. This will give the most
But the best bet is to rely on your own vegetative growth, height, weed suppression
test plot data. Plant several recommended and yield. Early varieties are shorter 'and Ask your
varieties for no-till and see which yield best lower yielding. dealer
for you. For full season no-tilled soybeans, medFor no-till double-cropped soybeans, the ium season length varieties seem to do best.
proper choice of variety is important. Since Ask your seed company salesman for the soybean plant is strongly photo- specific ideas on which hybrids or varieties periodic, shorter day length like we get in are best suited for no-tillage planting. He
late summer hastens maturity of the beans. should be able to help you out.
"Will surface fertilization do the job?"
PLOWING DOWN or side-dressing fertilizer the fertilizer, except for starter, can be has always been the traditional way of broadcast and incorporated into the ground
applying fertilizer for conventional ly-tillIing in the fall before seeding the cover crop.
farmers. Most fertilizer can also be broadcast or
But this has been replaced with surface banded when you are no-tilling into exfertilization in no-tillage crop production isting sod or crop residues. Many growers to cut down on operations and soil dis- use starter fertilizer at planting time. Some turbance-although side-dressing with mini- even set up a tube to drop fertilizer ahead mum soil disturbance can be used. of off-set fluted coulters for one operation
Farmers considering a switch to no- planting and early side-dressing.
tillage frequently find it hard to believe A number of no-till corn growers use a Feed and
that surface application of fertilizer will split application of fertilizer. They apply all weed combos
provide the plant's roots with all the plant of the phosphorous and potassium along food that is needed. with part of the nitrogen on the surface
Keep pH up Soil testing is recommended before get- ahead of planting. Then they apply the
ting started with no-tillage. This enables remainder of the nitrogen later as a sideyou to know exactly which nutrients and dressing. If soil tests indicate low to medium phosphorous it should be incorpora-= ...-' ted the year before or applied with planter
as starter fertilizer.
Trials in southern Illinois with no-till
&A corn show the most efficient use of nitroSgen is when half of the nitrogen is applied pre-plant and half is applied later as a
side-dressing. Anhydrous Ammonia can be
In recent Univ. of Wisconsin trials, the
way potash was applied was a key to top
yields. Band application of potash alongside the row was more readily available to
corn than broadcast potash. Soil test
how much plant food are needed in every With double-cropped soybeans, many
field. farmers put on enough fertilizer when
No-tillage works best on a soil with a pH planting small grains for both the grain and
above 6.6. If your soils are below this level, soybean crops. Then they don't have to broadcast the necessary amount of lime. If fool around with fertilizer when the soya soil test shows a low phosphorous level, beans go in the ground the following June.
a starter fertilizer should be used. Low pH A number of farmers use a liquid nitrocan have an adverse effect on some residual gen carrier for application of Paraquat. If Herbicides. Triazin herbicides don't work as you do this, avoid slurry or liquid suspenwell on soils of below 6.0 pH. sion fertilizers since Paraquat is inactivated
If you plan to no-till into a cover crop, by the clay in these materials. These
much of your needed fertilizer and lime growers broadcast phosphorus and potascan be applied in the fall at the time you sium early, then apply nitrogen at the time
work the ground for the cover crop. All of of Paraquat application.
"What kind of planter, do I need?"
DIFFERENT SOILS, different climates which promotes unnecessary weed growth.
and different farms make it unrealistic to Obstructions: Double-disc openers are expect just one no-tillage planting system better suited to rocky conditions. They roll to fit all conditions. over rocks and other obstructions without
Choosing a So the choice of a planter that best suits causing planting delays. planter your farming conditions is an individual Depth control: Furrow depth is not
choice for you. always uniform when a rear press wheel is
While several planters seem more popular used for depth control. Depth control
than others, each of the major farm ma- gauge wheels mounted on either side of the chinery manufacturers has a planter suited opener result in more uniform furrow for no-tillage planting. depth. Depth bands on double-disc openers
A no-till planter must cut through can also help solve this problem.
ground cover, open a furrow, place seed in Seed -placement: Erratic furrow closure the ground, regulate depth of seed place- can result in seeds not being properly ment, cover the seed and firm the covering imbedded in the furrow. Closing with soil. available rear press wheels does not always
No-tillage row-crop planters are basically guarantee uniform seed placement under
the same as conventional units with only a varying conditions.
few exceptions. Most of these no-till Use of a spring-loaded seed firming
wheel attached between the furrow opener and rear press wheel wi I I solve this problem. These are available as options for most planters.
Unsatisfactory stands: This is often caused by running fluted coulters too deep, too wet, or too fast. Kernels fall into the groove to various depths and the result is a poor stand and irregular germination. Fluted coulters should generally be run at the desired seed depth.
Selection of various no-till planter options is an individual matter. There are more than 4,000 different planter options planters have a fluted or ripple coulter, to on the market today, so correct choice of prepare the ground. no-till planters and planter accessories is
No-tillage planters should also have a important.
heavier frame since weight must frequently be added to the planter to get needed
penetration into the ground.
One word of caution: Don't try to
convert a lightweight conventional planter for no-till use. It usually is not sturdy
Planting Here's a rundown on typical problems
problems farmers run into with no-tillage planters.
Improper soil penetration: In some clay
soils, the cause is that sufficient weight for soil penetration is not always provided. A minimum of 400 lbs. is required on each
coulter for adequate soil penetration.
Trash accumulation: Shoe-type furrow
openers accumulate trash and moist soil.
Chisel-boot furrow openers accumulate trash and move subsurface soil up to the surface,
"What is a contact herbicide?"
MOST SUCCESSFUL no-till systems use Here are some tips for better chemical
Ortho Paraquat CL to replace mechanical performance with Paraquat.
tillage in the preparation of a seedbed. Hit weeds when they are small. The best
No-tillage usually takes a combination of control is obtained when weeds are actively
a contact herbicide for quick burn-down of growing and from 1 to 6 inches tall. Larger
existing vegetation and use of one or more plants may not be controlled.
residual herbicides to provide season-long Know what weeds you are spraying.
weed control. Since all chemicals have limitations, idenA number of systems have been developed for several crops using Paraquat as a contact herbicide in place of tillage. And
How Paraquat more systems are under development to J
works enable no-tillage to grow into new crops
and new areas of the country.
A rundown on basic characteristics of
Paraquat will improve the probability of no-tillage success for farmers just giving it a
* Paraquat is non-selective. It kills both
annual broadleaf weeds and grasses.
* Paraquat kills green plant tissue essentially on contact.
* Paraquat is fast acting. It works over a
wide range of temperatures. It's quickly absorbed into plant tissue before rain can
wash it off.
* Paraquat doesn't leave biologically
active soil residue. It is inactivated upon contact with clay particles in the soil,
when applied as directed.
* Paraquat is completely water soluble, tify the plants you need to kill and check
non-volatile and non-explosive, the label to see if performance can be
A non-selective contact herbicide, Para- expected. While Paraquat is non-selective
quat kills vegetation through contact with for above-ground vegetation, it will only green plant tissue. It is absorbed rapidly burn back perennials growing from rhiinto plant cells where it interrupts the zomes such as Johnsongrass.
photosynthetic processes. This causes plant Follow the recommended application cells to collapse and the plant dies. rates on the label. Use of larger amounts is
Upon contact with clay particles in the soil, not only costly, but illegal.
Paraquat is deactivated. It leaves no biologi- Proper mixing of chemicals is a must.
cally active residue which could be taken up Some wettable powders require pre-mixing.
by roots or damage succeeding crops, when Others do not mix well in cold water.
applied as directed. Check tank mixes for compatibility. Be
Follow Because Paraquat is deactivited in clay- sure to mix thoroughly and use continuous
the label containing soil,treated soil washing into lakes agitation with tank mixes.
and streams will not contaminate the water. Use only clean water with Paraquat. It Use clean
For maximum effectiveness, ORTHO can be inactivated on contact with clay water
X-77@ Spreader must be used with Para- particles present in dirty water.
quat. Tests show the efficiency of Para- When you switch to no-tillage farming, quat is reduced 25% to 30% when you switch to an often total reliance on
ORTHO X-77 Spreader is not used, par- chemicals for control of unwanted vegetaticularly when plants are under stress. The tion. This reliance makes it very important spreader should be used with Paraquat to know your chemicals and what they can
whether you use water or liquid nitrogen do for you.
as a carrier.
"Are regular herbicides still needed?"
BASICALLY, NO-TILLAGE means sub- system used. Spray weeds when they are
stituting the contact herbicide Paraquat for small and easy to kill.
your plow and other tillage tools in the e Selection of the proper herbicides or
preparation of your seedbed. herbicide combinations is essential-more
Tank-mix That is the main difference when switch- so than with conventional tillage. Thus you
uses ing from conventional tillage to no-tillage have to know what weeds are present in
cropping. your fields and select the proper herbicide
So if you are already using residual-type or herbicides to control them.
herbicides for chemical weed control in a a Make sure you use an adequate conventional farming program as most amount of water or liquid nitrogen as a
farmers are now doing, you will need to carrier for your herbicides. With the large continue using these herbicides in the amounts of surface trash with no-tillage,
future. most agronomists feel you need 20 to 60
Use of Paraquat contact herbicide simply gallons of liquid per acre to insure that the Combination
controls green vegetation growing on the chemicals reach all of the vegetation. This needed
surface at time of application. It does not is especially important with Paraquat since control tough perennial weeds or weeds it must be applied through the trash and
that emerge at a later date. reach the leaf surface of all weeds to work.
Thus, residual herbicides are needed for 0 Use the proper nozzles at a height
season-long control of weeds. So a combina- which allows complete coverage of all tion of both Paraquat and one or more surface vegetation. Don't exceed 40" spacing.
Replacing registered residual herbicides is needed for Paraquat is now cleared for tank-mix use on the plow complete, season-long weed control. the label of the following residual herbicides:
For good weed control in no-tillage crop AAtrex and Princep, atrazine, Bladex, Lorox,
production, follow these basic guides: Lasso, Sencor, Lexone, Surflan. Additional
* Make sure you do not underestimate clearances for use of this contact herbicide
the weed potential to your fields. Weeds with many other residual herbicides can be exmust be controlled regardless of the tillage pected for no-till crop production sometime in the future. Check and follow all labels for
specific combination uses.
"Can I keep insects under control?"
CERTAIN INSECT pests have to be Some growers have been hit with outwatched carefully for damage in no-tillage breaks of armyworms with no-till crops corps. planted into sod. If this happens, contact
But they can be controlled with little local agricultural authorities for the best
difficulty if you take some precautions to way of combatting this problem. Toxaprevent unnecessary outbreaks and keep a phene is registered for this use at a rate of
close watch for these pests. 2-1/4 lbs. of actual ingredient per acre. Watch
Use of a planter-box seed treater, such (Follow label direction.)yorfed
Us edas one of the ISOTOX seed treaters, isyorfed
Use recommended for insect and disease contreaters trol. If corn rootworms have been a problem, then apply an insecticide recommended for your area to control this pest.
Use of soil insecticide on no-tillage corn
has been a paying proposition in tests at the Dixon Springs Agricultural Center in
southern Illinois. Application of a soil soup
insecticide gave up to 16 bu. more corn per *o
acre compared with check plots where no '?E
insecticide was applied in recent tests.
There are pros and cons to using an
insecticide with no-till soybeans. Some yield increases have been shown for band
application of insecticide, yet no insecticide has yielded more in other trials.
Soil insects can be a problem in crop
production so monitor your fields.
"How critical is spraying?"
PROPER SPRAYING will have as much to to be sure all vegetation is completely
do with making a success of no-tillage crop covered. Again, we point out that you production as anything you do. should try to spray when weeds are small.
This means usage of the correct nozzles, Spray booms must be high enough to
right boom heights, right sprayer speed, cover all plant growth. Use adequate
Getthroghright amount of water or liquid nitrogen amounts of spray and enough pressure to
Get horughcarrier, proper mixing of chemicals and completely wet all vegetation.
coverage much more. Generally a flat fan nozzle is the most Spraying
Many farmers solve the problem of desirable for Paraquat application, but is critical
proper chemical application by relying on other considerations frequently dictate custom applicators. They have experience that flooding type nozzles be used. If with various chemicals and the know-how flooding type nozzles are used, spacing to insure that the job is done the right way. should be no greater than 40 inches and
Agronomists point out that a key to nozzle size should be no larger than numno-till success is applying enough water or ber 20.
liquid nitrogen to make sure all plants are Remember .. spraying of chemicals is a covered with herbicide. Since Paraquat kills critical part of no-tillage. This has to be only what it comes in contact with, it is done right if you are to be successful with essential that you get thorough coverage. In no-tillage. This is an area where it pays to
extreme cases, this may require application take your time and do things right.
of as much as 60 gallons of carrier per acre
"What about double-cropping
DOUBLE-CROPPING opportunities are yield. Then they come back and doublepractically unlimited today. While soybeans crop soybeans or another crop into the behind barley or wheat has been the big use small grain stubble the following year.
of double-cropping to date, many other Check with the extension service in your
combinations of two crops are also being area for the best grain varieties for use in Imagination
grown where only one crop grew previous- double-cropping. is key
ly. No-tillers may take off a crop of forage To get a longer growing season for their in early May before planting no-till corn second crop, some no-tillers artificially dry into sod for the first time. the small grain at harvest time. This allows
Other combinations include corn after them to get as much as a one week longer
corn, grain sorghum after small grain, corn growing season for the second crop they 80 bu. grain, after barley, corn after peas and so forth. plant. No-tillage is the reason double40 bu. beans However, do not plant soybeans into cropping has grown so fast in recent years.
forage or sod. There is practically no You can see farmers harvesting one crop
limit as to what can be done with double- and planting a second crop in the same cropping today. Many no-tillers say double- field on the same day. Such a situation cropping lets them practically grow one certainly is not the time or place for crop free each year. conventional tillage since speed is of the
The biggest benefits come from spread- essence in making full use of all available
ing the overhead costs over two crops moisture. During most summers there isn't
instead of just one crop. Some growers any moisture to waste through straw burnhave found that soybeans planted after ing or turning up the soil with tillage.
small grains can rival-or beat- a good crop While most of our double-cropping is of corn for total profits. While an 80-bu. done today in the South or the southern barley crop and a 40-bu. soybean crop are Corn Belt, no-till today knows no geonot outstanding by themselves, they cer- graphic boundaries. No-tillers as far north
tainly are profitable when you harvest both as Wisconsin are making the concept work Longer from the same acre in a year's time. Don't with various combinations of crops. growing
plant soybeans in any sods. However, if you are north of an east/ season
A number of no-tilling double-croppers west line drawn through Springfield, Ill.,
have even gone to aerial seeding of small check with your local farm advisor to learn grains into standing corn in the fall. This if double-cropping can succeed in your gives the small grain a longer growing area by giving you a no-tillage jump on
season before fall frost and increases the your planting dates.
"'ils no-till really the way of the future?"
NO-TI LLAGE is definitely going to con- future as farmers get concerned with costs.
Only 5% tinue to grow in the future. It is a proven A recent United States Department of
plowed in practice that farmers can use to save time, Agriculture study indicates that less than year 2010 save costs, save soil, save moisture and 7% of all cropland will be planted via
much more. With so many advantages, it is conventional tillage just 35 years from
-bound.. to-.-catch on in a big way in the now.
% of acreage This study shows that 77% of all corn, 77% no-tilled
1 grain sorghum, wheat, rye and soybeans
will be planted via no-tillage by that time.
90% -%of cropland A total of 54% of all U.S. cropland will be
80% -reduced tilaefrelihuttlaeb hn
It is estimated that no-tillage will enable
70% farmers to trim production costs by nearly
$5 per acre by the year 2010, according to
60% --- --the USDA study. Fuel costs will also be cut
50%~,,..by better than $1 per acre. Besides the cost Save $5
50 of fee -- rains, savings, conservation benefits due to less per acre
%40% e~etgrsains* tillage will also be easier to sell in the
pl -hate vibansil- /ftr sorconr esmr ocre
plat% vi no abo -utr arious ctry ofersimone ancprneu
30%~~~~ aboroput vaiuionsofeoio.n plu
20%~~~ ~ ~~ of-r rpoante d t Aion al hr sabrgtftr o
1%no till no-tillage. Many farmers are already making
10% L no-tillage pay off in a big way. How about
1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 you?
DANGER: Paraquat is highly toxic if swallowed and should be kept out of reach of children. To prevent accidents, never transfer to food, drink or other containers. Read the label carefully and follow all directions, danger statements and worker safety rules. Restricted Use Pesticide. Use all chemicals only as
This information is correct as of the date of publication but is subject to change. Therefore, always refer
to the label on the product container before using.
CHEVRON CHEMICAL COMPANY
575 Market St., San Francisco, California 94105
Helping the World Grow Betterl
TM'S ORTHO, CHEVRON AND DESIGN HELPING THE WORLD GROW BETTER, REG. U.S. PAT. OFF. X-7T TRADEMARK OF KALO LABORATORIES, INC. AVOID ACCIDENTS, READ THE LABEL AND USE ONLY AS DIRECTED
PRINTED IN U.S.A. PROJECT NUMBER 801 6P-19. 10/79